NSC 3361 Review Exam 3 new.pptx - NSC 3361 Exam 3 Review REMINDER DO NOT study only these reviews they are intended to supplement the lectures your

NSC 3361 Review Exam 3 new.pptx - NSC 3361 Exam 3 Review...

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NSC 3361 Exam 3 Review
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REMINDER! DO NOT study only these reviews; they are intended to supplement the lectures & your notes.
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Motor Control *In the interest of time & due to the poll results, Motor Control will be skipped during our review, but its slides will be added before this review is sent out. This does not mean that Motor Control is not on the test or that it will be less represented on the test. The test will cover everything from Vision forward.
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How does the nervous system optimize accuracy and speed? 1) Open-loop control: SPEED rapid (ballistic movement), completed no matter what sensory feedback is received 2) Closed-loop control: ACCURACY slow and smooth (ramp movement), sustained motions guided by feedback
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Hierarchy of Motor Control Systems
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How We Move Antagonists : muscles that contract when others extend ex: biceps and triceps Synergists : muscles that act together flexor and extensor muscles are balanced AT REST Tremor: a variation of flexor-extensor contraction, normally present but can be debilitating if poorly regulated flexion extension
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Muscle Fibers + Filaments A muscle is composed of → muscle fibers Each fiber contains → myosin and actin (filaments) Myosin = thick, actin = thin (Contraction shortens the length of the fiber)
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Muscle Fiber Recruitment Key players: slow-twitch and fast-twitch fibers of striated muscle Slow-twitch: first to be recruited, contract slowly but resist fatigue Fast-twitch: last to be recruited, contract rapidly but fatigue easily
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Motoneurons + Neuromuscular Junctions Motoneurons send their axons to innervate muscles AP’s travel down the motoneuron, which branches into many terminals near its target Neuromuscular junction : where motoneuron terminal and muscle fiber meet This is where acetylcholine (Ach) is released!
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Motor Units A motor unit is one motoneuron’s axon and all of its target fibers Muscles that make fine, precise movements have only a few muscle fibers per axon
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Muscle Spindles + Golgi Tendon Organs If a muscle is stretched, the muscle spindle also stretches Muscle contracts to maintain “preset” length Golgi tendon organ stimulation inhibits motoneurons → relaxes extreme tension and prevents damage
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Stretch Reflex Circuit 1. Muscle is stretched 2. Excitation of muscle spindle afferents 3. Excitation of motoneurons 4. Agonist muscle stimulated to oppose stretch 5. Antagonist muscle is inhibited
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Pyramidal system pathway Primary motor cortex > pyramid in medulla > spinal cord & then motorneuron > muscle
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Pyramidal brain regions M1: execute movement Motor homunculus Changes in result of learning Nonprimary Supplementary motor area: sequencing of movement Activates bilaterally for more complex movement Premotor: fires before action performed.
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  • Fall '17
  • orbitofrontal cortex, primary motor cortex

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