VowelsSuprasegmentalsLast time…Sound wavesPeriodic vs. aperiodic wavesFrequency & AmplitudeVolume & PitchComplex periodic waves & how they are composedHarmonics, resonance, & formantsFundamental frequency (f0)OscillogramsIntensity vs. timeSpectraIntensity vs. frequencySpectrogramsFrequency vs. time vs. intensityNarrow-band vs. wide-band2
VowelsSuprasegmentalsNarrow-band spectrogramsAnalysis window length∼30–50msQuite long! Blurs out temporalinformationGood frequency resolution! Showsindividual harmonicsHowever, frequency information istoo detailed to pick out formantseasilyFrequency (Hz)05000Sound pressure level (dB/Hz)-60-40-20020Time (s)9.1149.19205000Frequency (Hz)3
VowelsSuprasegmentalsWide-band spectrogramsAnalysis window length∼5msQuite short! Good temporalresolution: can see individual glottalpulsesPoor frequency resolution: blurs outharmonicsThis makes formant shapes easier tomake outFrequency (Hz)05000Sound pressure level (dB/Hz)-60-40-20020Time (s)9.1149.19205000Frequency (Hz)4
VowelsSuprasegmentalsToday…Learning to read spectrograms!
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Vowel, International Phonetic Alphabet, glottal pulses