2-potential.pdf - electric potential and capacitance physics 111N electric potential energy consider a uniform electric field(e.g from parallel plates

2-potential.pdf - electric potential and capacitance...

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physics 111N electric potential and capacitance
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physics 111N 2 electric potential energy ! consider a uniform electric field (e.g. from parallel plates) ! note the analogy to gravitational force near the surface of the Earth
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physics 111N 3 potential between parallel plates + + + + + + + + + + ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! define a quantity that depends only upon the field and not the value of the test charge the ‘potential’ measured in Volts, V = J/C potential energy actually only differences of potential are meaningful, we can add a constant to V if we like
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physics 111N 4 potential between parallel plates + + + + + + + + + + ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 0 V 2.25 V 4.50 V 0 V 9 V 9.00 V 6.75 V equipotential lines lines of equal value of potential arbitrarily choose V =0 at the right-hand plate
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physics 111N 5 a capacitor + + + + + + + + + + ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 0 V 2.25 V 4.50 V 9.00 V 6.75 V
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physics 111N 6 conservation of energy using potential A 9 V battery is connected across two large parallel plates that are separated by 9.0 mm of air, creating a potential difference of 9.0 V. An electron is released from rest at the negative plate - how fast is it moving just before it hits the positive plate ? + + + + + + + + + + ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
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physics 111N 7 potential energy between point charges + Q + Q
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physics 111N 8 potential from a point charge arbitrarily choose V =0 infinitely far from the charge depend only on distance from the charge Q
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physics 111N 9 a set of point charges q 1 q 2 q 3 P at the point P there is an electric field E and an electric potential V
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physics 111N 10 electric field from a set of point charges q 1 q 2 q 3
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physics 111N 11 electric field from a set of point charges q 1 q 2 q 3
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physics 111N 12 electric field from a set of point charges q 1 q 2 q 3 have to do vector addition - difficult !
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physics 111N 13 electric potential from a set of point charges q 1 q 2 q 3 just scalar addition - easy !
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physics 111N + + ! 14 for example 10.0 mm 4.00 mm 5.00 mm +10.0 pC +20.0 pC -8.0 pC find the electric potential what potential energy would a charge of 2.0 nC have at this position ?
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physics 111N 19 equipotential diagrams equipotentials are defined as the surfaces on which the potential takes a constant value - hence different equipotentials never intersect usually draw them with equal potential separations
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physics 111N 20 equipotentials for a point charge 30 V 50 V 70 V 90 V 110 V
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physics 111N 21 equipotentials from a dipole + ! +20 V -20 V 0 V
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physics 111N 22 equipotentials from a dipole +20 V -20 V notice that the field lines are always perpendicular to the equipotentials
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physics 111N 23 equipotentials from two equal point charges notice that the field lines are always perpendicular to the equipotentials
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  • Spring '20
  • Energy, Electric charge, Electric potential energy

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