Grammar - Chapter 1 Form of Adjectives - Agree in gender...

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Chapter 1 Form of Adjectives - Agree in gender and number - Adjectives that end in –o change to –a in the feminine and form the plural by adding an –s - Adjectives ending in –e, -l, or –ista only change in the plural by adding –s or – es. The same ending is used for the feminine and masculine - Adjectives that end in –dor and adjectives of nationality that end in –ol, -án, or és add an a in the feminine and an –es or –s in the plural Position of Adjectives - Usually descriptive adjectives are places after the noun they modify - Adjectives bueno and malo may be places before the noun, in which masculine adjectives drop the –o Uses of the Present Tense - Daily activities, present events, and present habitual actions - Make a past event more vivid, especially in narration - Actions in progress at the moment of speaking, you can use the present or present progressive Present Tense Conjugations - -ar endings -o, -as, -a, -amos, -an - -er endings -o, -es, -e, -emos, -en - -ir endings -o, -es, -e, -imos, -ís, -en Uses of the Present Progressive - Something that is happening right now - Progressive tense may also be expressed with the verbs andar, continuar, ir, seguir, and venir + present participle (Ex. La fimilia continua estando intacta) Forms of the Present Participle - Find the stem of the verb and add –ando to –ar verbs and –iendo to –ir/-er verbs - With –er/-ir verbs, add –yendo if the stem ends in a vowel - -ir verbs change e i or o u in the third person preterite, show the same change in the stem of the present participle (ex. servir sirviendo; dormir durmiendo) - The present participle of ir is yendo
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Chapter 2 Uses of Hacer - Used to describe weather in the third person singular - Also used to describe weather with the words viento and nubes - Estar is commonly used with soleado and nublado - Llover and nevar are only conjugated in the third person singular Uses of Tener - Idiomatic expressions o Tener calor / frío o Tener sueño o Tener hambre / sed o Tener miedo o Tener suerte o Tener éxito o Tener ganas de o Tener razón Forming Yes / No Questions - Applying a rising intonation to the statement - Placing the verb before the subject and using a rising intonation - Using tag words (no or verdad) at the end of the statement o No is only used in affirmative statements o Verdad can be used in both negative and affirmative statements Question Words - Question word + verb + subject - Interrogative words o Cómo o Cuál o Cuáles o Cuándo o Cuánto/a o Cuántos/as o Dónde o De dónde o Adónde o Por qué o Qué o Quién / quiénes Use of Cuál / Cuáles When There is a Possibility of Choice - Cuál is used when the choice is between iteams in the same set or group - Use cuál es in the singular form and cuáles son in the plural form Qué is Used When One is Asking for a Definition or an Explanation - Asking for an explanation - Asking for a definition - Use when there is a choice in which items do not belong to the same set or group
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Grammar - Chapter 1 Form of Adjectives - Agree in gender...

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