Exam 1 Vocabulary - Chapter1Vocabulary 1.

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Chapter 1 Vocabulary 1. Politics:  process through which individuals and groups reach agreement on a course of  common or collective action – even as they may continue to disagree on the goals that  action is intended to achieve 2. Bargaining and compromising:  prolonged exchange of proposals and counterproposals  that frequently ensue between two parties; settlement in which each side concedes some  of its preferences in order to secure others 3. Preferences:  individuals and groups know what they want 4. Political Institutions:  organization that manages potential conflicts between political  rivals, helps them to find mutually acceptable solutions, and makes and enforces the  society’s collective agreements 5. Constitution:  establishes its governing institutions and the set of rules and procedures  these institutions must (and must not) follow to reach and enforce collective agreements 6. Government:  consists of these institutions and the legally prescribed process for making  and enforcing collective agreements 7. Offices:  Makes up government institutions; confer on their occupants specific authority  and responsibilities 8. Authority:  acknowledged right to make a particular decision 9. Power:  refers to an officeholder’s actual influence with other officeholders and government  actions 10.  Collective Action:  efforts of a group to reach and implement agreements 11. Coordination:  members of the group must decide individually what they want, what they  are prepared to contribute to the collective enterprise and how to coordinate their efforts  with those of others 12. Prisoner’s Dilemma:  arises whenever individuals decide that even though they support  some collective undertaking, they are personally better off pursuing an activity that rewards  them individually despite undermining the collective effort 13. Focal Point:  target energies toward a common purpose 14. Free-Rider Problem:  form of the prisoner’s dilemma; to defect from the agreement by  withholding a contribution to the group’s undertaking while enjoying the benefits of the  collective effort 15. Tragedy of the Commons:  form of the prisoner’s dilemma; resembles the free-rider  problem except that the good already exists and will be destroyed if its exploitation is not 
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brought under control 16. Privatize:  to make private 17. Transaction Costs and Conformity Costs:  often involve a trade-off with one another;  time, effort, and resources required to make collective decisions; the extent in which  collective decisions obligate participants to do something they prefer not to 18. Majority Rule/Simple Majority:  one half plus one
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This note was uploaded on 09/21/2011 for the course POLS 1101 taught by Professor Cann during the Spring '08 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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Exam 1 Vocabulary - Chapter1Vocabulary 1.

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