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Exam 2 Book Notes

Exam 2 Book Notes - Chapter6:Congress :last clause of...

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Chapter 6: Congress Necessary and Proper Clause:  last clause of Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution; grants Congress the authority to make all laws that are “necessary and proper” and to execute those laws Proportional Representation:  gives a party a share of seats in the legislature matching the share of the votes it wins on Election Day Gerrymandering:  drawing legislative districts in such a way as to give one political party a disproportionately large share of seats for the share of votes its candidates win; produce bizarrely shaped districts Political Action Committees (PACs):  organizations that raise and distribute money for campaigns Ticket-splitting: voting for candidates of different parties for different offices Casework: requests from constituents for information and help in dealing with government agencies Presidential Coattails:  metaphor for the capacity of a successful presidential candidate to pull the party’s other candidates into office Logrolling:  legislative practice in which members of Congress offer reciprocal support to each other’s vote gaining projects or tax breaks Pork Barrel Legislation: measures earmarking projects for individual members’ districts Seniority Rule: routinely allocating first choice in committee chairs, offices, and committee assignments to majority party members who have served longest; reduces the time and energy members would otherwise put into competing for these valued things Speaker of the House:  presiding officer of the House of Representatives; the Speaker is elected at the beginning of each congressional session on a party-line vote; has substantial control over the legislative agenda of the House Conditional Party Government: degree of authority delegated to and exercised by congressional party leaders varies with the extent of election-driven ideological consensus among members Majority Leader: formal leader of the party controlling the majority of the seats in the House or Senate; in the Senate - head of majority party; in the House – 2 nd to the Speaker Minority Leader:  formal leader of the party controlling a minority of the seats in the House or Senate
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Exam 2 Book Notes - Chapter6:Congress :last clause of...

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