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Final Notes from Text

Final Notes from Text - Chapter 13 13.1 Water and Sediment...

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Chapter 13 13.1 Water and Sediment Quality I. Solid Waste Dumping a. More than 25% of the mass of all material dumped at sea is dredged material from ports and waterways b. Obsolete military hardware and munitions are dumped at sea c. Pollutants in the water can travel anywhere internationally d. 1972 – US Congress passed the Marine, Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA/Ocean Dumping Act) i. Prohibits all ocean dumping in US unless permitted by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ii. Bans any dumping of radiological, chemical, and biological warfare agents and any high-level radioactive waste and medical waste iii. Authorized the establishment of marine sanctuaries e. New York Bight i. One of the largest marine disposal sites in the US ii. Located off the mouth of the Hudson River iii. Beginning in the 1980s – dumping of street sweeping, garbage, dredge spoils, cellar dirt, and waste chemicals which washed up on beaches iv. 1934 – laws passed to prohibit dumping of “floatables” v. Degraded the quality of the water and killed marine organisms in shallow water vi. 1986 – amendments made to cease all dumping in the New York Bight and moved dumping to 106-Mile Dumpsite f. 106-Mile Dumpsite i. 106 miles offshore ii. Water approximately 2500m (8600ft) deep iii. 42 million tons of sewage dumped between 1986 and 1992 iv. Increased production and marine organisms v. Waste affected the metabolism, diet, and variety of the organisms living there vi. Long-term disposal of waste could alter the food web and change the species diversity of the organisms there vii. Organisms could use the sludge as a source of food and energy viii. Dumping here stopped in July of 1992
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g. Presence of sewage sludge in sediments can be tracked through silver concentration II. Sewage Effluent a. Late 1800s/Early 1900s – most urban sewer systems built in the US b. Carried raw sewage to the closest body of water (river, lake, or ocean) c. 1989 – construction of new sewage collection systems and a sewage treatment plant d. Deer Island Sewage Treatment Plant (January 1995) i. Constructed to remove human, household, business, and industrial pollutants from wastewater that originates in homes and businesses in 43 different communities with a total population of 2.5 million in the Boston areas ii. 2 nd largest sewage treatment plant in the US iii. Peak capacity is 1270 million gallons of wastewater per day iv. Average daily flow is about 390 million gallons per day v. Discharged through an outfall tunnel 7m (24ft) in diameter beneath the sea floor that extends 15.3km (9.5mi) offshore vi. Diffusers split the flow into several streams e. Southern California Bight (SCB) i. Southern California coastal region from Los Angeles to San Diego ii. Home to 17 million people in 2002 iii. Ocean-related tourism area iv. Discharge from municipal wastewater facilities and power-generating stations, oil platforms, industrial effluents, and dredging operations v. 19 municipal wastewater treatment facilities discharge treated water directly to the SCB vi. December 1998 – upgrading of the Hyperion
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Final Notes from Text - Chapter 13 13.1 Water and Sediment...

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