SOCI 1101 Test 2 Lecture Notes

SOCI 1101 Test 2 Lecture Notes - SOCI 1101 Test 2 Lecture...

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SOCI 1101 Test 2 Lecture Notes 14 September 2009 Social Stratification I. Stratification: the distribution of wealth; inequality II. Why stratification matters? a. “Stratification” comes from geology (layers) b. Important to sociologists c. Not because it is fair or unfair, right or wrong d. Facts vs. values e. Explains so much about so many aspects of social life i. The immorality of homicide (Cooney) ii. Measure the immorality of homicides by how severe the punishment is iii. Different levels of homicide 1. Upward – lower class doing it to upper class 2. Downward – upper class doing it to lower class f. Stratification also affects: i. Who we marry (homophily) 1. People from the same social class befriend and marry ii. How we raise our children g. Stratification is theoretically powerful III. Dependent vs. Independent Variables a. We will look at stratification both as dependent and independent variables b. Dependent (effect): the thing we are studying i. Ex. The immorality of homicide c. Independent (cause): the thing that explains the dependent variable i. Ex. The direction of homicide (upwards/downwards) IV. Our Issues a. Long-term trends in stratification across human history b. Short-term trends in stratification in U.S. in the last 50 years c. Impact of inequality on societies d. Impact of inequality on social interaction e. Poverty in America: How the Poor Get By V. Long-term trends a. First 60,000 years, humans lived in equal societies b. Inequality grew from HG to early industrialists c. Inequality declined with industrial society d. Inequality today is more subtle than in agrarian societies
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VI. Gini Coefficient a. One measure of inequality (0-1) b. 0 = everybody has the same amount of wealth c. 1 = single person holds all the wealth d. The larger the coefficient, the greater the inequality/stratification e. If we knew the Gini coefficient for all types of societies, they would look like this: i. HG = 0 ii. Horticultural = .15 iii. Agrarian = .75 iv. Industrial = .35 VII. Qualitative Change a. Inequality changes qualitatively as well b. Over long term, inequality has become less rigid c. In agricultural societies, status is often fixed at birth d. This is especially true of the caste system and slavery VIII. Caste Systems a. Caste: born into, line in, and die in the same caste; no movement up or down b. Marry within your caste c. Avoid contact with higher and lower castes d. Do jobs associated with your caste e. Best known system is the Indian caste system IX. Indian Caste System a. 4 major castes (varnas) and untouchables b. Hundreds of sub-castes (jatis) c. One’s jati is most important group i. Determines everything (ex. Occupation) d. Concept of “untouchables” is now outlawed as well as the entire system e. System still survives, though less strongly than before, especially in rural areas X. Slavery a. Slavery (ownership of people) was most common in horticultural societies i. African Kingdoms (Dahomy, Ashanti) ii. Mayans, Aztecs
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SOCI 1101 Test 2 Lecture Notes - SOCI 1101 Test 2 Lecture...

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