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SOCI 1101 Test 4 Lecture Notes

SOCI 1101 Test 4 Lecture Notes - SOCI 1101 Test 4(Final...

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SOCI 1101 Test 4 (Final) Notes 09 November 2009 I. Social Control a. The definition of, response to, wrongdoing b. Does not mean influences on behavior i. That is all of sociology c. Under social control, we study behavior that groups define as right and wrong – social morality d. This includes crime, deviance, punishment, and law e. Social control is universal i. Every social group has conflicts over right and wrong II. Why Social Control Matters a. Profoundly affects whether our lives are peaceful or violent, repressive, or free b. Considerable explanatory power i. Who commits crime (labeling theory) ii. If you’re labeled a felon, you will be one c. The handling of homicide (respectability) III. Long term trends a. Over the course of human history, two main trends are visible i. Expansion of law and contraction of popular justice (Cooney) ii. The rise and (relative) fall of punishment IV. Law and Popular Justice a. Law = governmental social control b. Government (the state) is a mere 5000 years old c. Thomas Hobbes, “Leviathan” (1651): in the absence of law i. Life is “nasty, brutish, and short” ii. He was wrong d. Some pre-state societies were violent, but some were highly peaceful e. Even those that were violent were not violent all the time – they were largely orderly f. Pre-legal societies created order by relying on popular justice g. Forms of popular justice: toleration, shunning, compensation, self-help (ex. Aggression) h. Some popular justice was violent (ex. Blood vengeance practiced in some societies for some wrongs) i. As the state develops, eventually prohibits violence and defines it as a crime j. Most violence is still social control, a way of responding to
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wrongdoing, a form of popular justice i. Ex. Fort Hood massacre V. Homicide a. Illustrates the evolution of sanctions, from popular to law b. But legal and popular sanctions share one important feature: variable severity c. Same conduct (ex. Homicide) can lead to more or less severe legal or popular sanctions d. Severity is not wholly explained by what the parties do e. To explain severity, we need a new theory: pure sociology 11 November 2009 I. Punishment a. The infliction of sanctions by a 3 rd party authority (ex. A government) b. Over time, punishment increased in frequency and severity before declining in industrial society c. Agrarian societies have very harsh punishments i. Ex. Death penalty II. 18 th Century Death Penalty a. 1775: man tried to assassinate King Louis XV in Paris i. Failed and sentenced to having his flesh torn away with red hot pincers, hands will be burned with sulfur and molten wax and boiling old then poured into the wounds; four limbs to be each tied to a horse and pulled apart III. Contemporary Death Penalty a. Rarely used today b. Less than 50 executions a year in U.S.
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SOCI 1101 Test 4 Lecture Notes - SOCI 1101 Test 4(Final...

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