326 Exam 4.pdf - Health Shocks \u2022 \u2022 \u2022 \u2022 \u2022 \u2022 Coronary heart disease(CHD o Narrowing of coronary arteries \u25aa Caused by atherosclerosis \u2022

326 Exam 4.pdf - Health Shocks • • • • • •...

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Health Shocks Coronary heart disease (CHD) o Narrowing of coronary arteries Caused by atherosclerosis Build- up of plaque that doesn’t allow proper blood flow Restricts blood flow to and from the heart o Risk factors High cholesterol High blood pressure Elevated levels of inflammation Diabetes Cigarette smoking Obesity Lack of exercise Metabolic syndrome o Helps predict heart attacks when identified o Diagnosed when a person has Obesity centered around the waist High bp Low levels of HDL Difficulty metabolizing blood sugar High levels of triglycerides Exercise and healthy diet can help with a lot of these things Biological reactivity to stress o Plays a role in the development of CHD o Cumulative effects lead to damage of the endothelial cells o Reflected in prolonged recovery period Stress and CHD o Chronic and acute stress is linked to CHD and adverse clinical events o Interacts with genetics factors to increase likelihood of CHD o Associated with increased inflammatory activity Factors that can cause stress o Low SES o Bas fam environment o Lack of social support o Illness o Workplace related stress o Loss of control over life o Social instability urbanization Women and CHD o Leading cause of death in women in developing nations o Estrogen prevents early onset of CHD Reduced sympathetic nervous system arousal
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Lowers incidence of high blood pressure and neuroendocrine and metabolic responses o Risk increases after menopause Personality, cardiovascular reactivity and CHD o Negative emotions increase risk for metabolic syndrome and CHD o Hostility can come from Insecure and negative feelings Bad child rearing practices Bad family environment Genetic factors o Hostile emotions Linked with higher incidence of CHD Leads to interpersonal conflicts and reduced social support Is a social manifestation of cardiovascular reactivity o Hostile individuals Show a weak antagonistic response to sympathetic activity Show larger and longer-lasting blood pressure responses Depression and CHD o Depression affects the development, progression, and mortality from CHD o Linked to risk factors for Coronary heart disease Metabolic syndrome Inflammation and likelihood of a heart attack Heart failure among elderly and mortality after coronary artery bypass graft surgery Other psychosocial risk factors and CHD o Vigilant coping o Anxiety\vital exhaustion o Hostility o Social isolations Management of heart disease o Role of delay one of the reasons for high rates of mortality and disability following heart attacks o Initial treatment Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery to treat blockage of major arteries Patients are closely monitored following myocardial infarction (MI) Anxiety predicts complications during the hospital phase Reinfarction and recurrent ischemia Cardia rehabilitation: helps patients to attain their optimal physical, medical,
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