Exam 2 Lecture Notes

Exam 2 Lecture Notes - ADPR 3130 Exam 2 Lecture Notes 01...

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ADPR 3130 Exam 2 Lecture Notes 01 March 2010 I. Experiment a. Secondary vs. primary b. Qualitative vs. quantitative II. Experiments as Causal Research a. Experiment research i. Involving the manipulation of one or more variables by the researcher in such a way that its effects on one or more other variables can be measured b. Why you should learn i. Providing evidence of “causality” ii. Ruling out other possible causal factors iii. Studying the effects of advertising III. Terms used in experimental research a. Independent Variable i. What cause the change manipulation ii. Treatment Group that is manipulated iii. Control group that is not manipulated b. Dependent Variable i. What the researcher wishes to explain observation c. Confounding variable (extraneous variable) i. Any variable that creates a possible but incorrect explanation of the results IV. Three Requirements for Demonstrating Causality a. Correlation i. IV and DV are correlated ii. Necessary but not sufficient conditions b. Appropriate time order of occurrence i. The cause must precede the effect in time c. Elimination of other possible causal factors i. Controlling over all possible confounding variables d. Must have all three V. Example of experimental research a. Binge drinking b. Independent variables i. Gain vs. loss framed message 1. Gain – positively written 2. Loss – negatively written ii. Additive vs. subtractive counterfactual thinking c. Dependent variables i. Binge drinking intentions VI. Classification of Experimental Validity a. Internal Validity – Control
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i. Affects primarily the ability to make causal conclusions ii. The extent to which an outcome can be attributed to an independent variable by controlling over other possible causal factors iii. Treatment Causes Change 1. Control over research condition 2. Eliminates influence of confounding variables b. External Validity – Generalization i. Affects primarily the ability to generalize findings to outside people, settings, and times ii. The extent to which the experimental results can be applied to the real world iii. Results from experimental research generalize real world 03 March 2010 I. Classification of Experimental Setting a. Laboratory experiments i. Conducted in a controlled setting ii. Advantages 1. The ability to control extraneous variables (ex. Environment, variables, and subject) 2. Lower the cost when compared to field experiments 3. Easy to replicate iii. Disadvantages 1. Artificial nature of the experimental environment 2. Researcher bias 3. Limited scope (hard to show long-term effects) b. Field Experiments i. Tests conducted outside the laboratory in an actual environment, such as a marketplace ii. Advantages 1. Solve the problem of the realism of the environment 2. Useful for studying complex social processes iii. Disadvantages 1. Cannot control all the spurious factors that might affect the dependent variable II. Control in experimentation a. Must ensure the internal validity by controlling for the effects of confounding variables b. Three main techniques
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i. Randomization
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This note was uploaded on 09/21/2011 for the course ADPR 3130 taught by Professor Lee during the Spring '11 term at UGA.

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Exam 2 Lecture Notes - ADPR 3130 Exam 2 Lecture Notes 01...

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