chap 11 & 12.pdf - Consumer Behavior Chapter 11...

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Unformatted text preview: Consumer Behavior Chapter 11 Cultural Values and Consumer Behavior “Levels” of Cultural Norms • Supranational • National • Group Culture and Marketing • Culture’s continuous evolution • Cultural beliefs reflect societal needs Learning Cultural Values • • • • Formal learning Informal learning Technical learning Enculturation (consumer socialization) v s . acculturation er us Language and Symbols • Verbal symbols • Nonverbal symbols – Product – Promotion – Price – Stores at which product is available Ritual Defined A type of symbolic activity consisting of a series of steps (multiple behaviors) occurring in a fixed sequence and repeated periodically. Ritualistic Behavior Ritual Artifacts Measuring Cultural Values • • • • Field observation Depth interviews Focus groups Questionnaires Gordon’s Survey Table 11.1 Marketing-Applicable Values from Gordon’s Inventory Personal Values Social Values Achievement: Enjoying challenge, growth, and accomplishment. Knowing what one wants to accomplish and doing so in an outstanding manner. Leadership: Being in charge and having authority and power. Having others work under one’s direction. Goal Orientation: Preferring to have well-defined objectives and completing tasks. Knowing exactly what one is aiming for. Recognition: Being looked up to, considered important, and admired. Having people make favorable remarks. Being noticed. Variety: Disliking routines and preferring new experiences. Visiting new places. Trying new and different things. Being able to travel. Conformity: Doing the correct thing and following regulations. Doing what’s accepted and proper. Conforming strictly to rules and moral standards. Criteria to Select Core Values • The value must be pervasive • The value must be enduring • The value must be related to consumption behavior Humanitarianism Benefits to Donors: • Belongingness • Trusting • Social-practical motivation • Prestige Appeal to Progress and Humanitarianism Green Behaviors Three Types of “Green” Consumers • Environmental Activists • Organic Eaters • Economizers Four Groups of “Green” Consumers • • • • True Greens Donor Greens Learning Greens Non-Greens Core Cultural Values (1 of 2) Table 11.2 Core Cultural Values Core Value Definition Promotional Appeals Achievement and Success Working hard and excelling in other aspects of life. “Fact: Our car members experience more” “You’re worth it” “For people who are in the best shape they’ve ever been in but still aren’t satisfied” Time and Activity Being active and busy in one’s job and life and expanding one’s horizons. “A new challenge daily—Wow, I’m so fortunate” “Prepare today, to lead for a lifetime” Efficiency and Practicality Saving time and effort and finding pragmatic products and solutions. Less theory, more practice. “The taste you want, the energy you need” “So easy, even an adult can open our container” Progress Seeking and adopting new processes that replace less advanced ones. “One-step process to a better complexion” “Only 4 minutes to a great family meal” Comfort and Pleasure Accumulating possessions that enable a more comfortable and pleasurable life. “Bring the family together: Create a great backyard” “Even more legroom” Core Cultural Values (2 of 2) Individualism and Conformity Individualism: Being yourself and marching to the “beat of your own drum,” as opposed to adhering to group norms and being the same as others. Conformity: Desiring to fit in. Individualism: “You answered to your own drum in college, now how about a challenging position for your career?” Conformity: “Drive carefully” “Respect others” “Be included: Vote this November” Freedom of Choice Having freedom of choice and expression. “Almost more colors than hairs on your head” “America is about choice” Humanitarianism Helping the less fortunate and people in need. “No kid should go hungry “We combat natural disasters with human kindness” Youthfulness Looking youthful and remaining “young at heart” despite aging chronologically. “Never look your age again” “Be Young. It’s a state of open-mindedness” Fitness and Health Caring about one’s health and ability to be physically active. “Relax—It’s the good fat” “Create your perfect body” Environmental Concerns Caring about the environment and buying “green” products. Clorox Green Works cleaner—“Shockingly Powerful, Naturally” “Planet’s favorite hybrid” Chapter 12 Subcultures and Consumer Behavior Subculture Defined A group that shares certain beliefs, values, and customs, stemming from ethnicity, religion, geographic location, age or gender, while also being part of a larger society. Society’s Cultural Profile Two elements: • Unique beliefs, values and customs • Central or core cultural values and customs Primary Subcultures Nationality and Ethnicity Religion Geography Generations Gender Religious Affiliation Defined A subculture that is based on identification with a religious or faith based group. Religion and Consumer Behavior • Muslim consumers - Halal Geographic Subcultures Defined A subculture that is based on geographic locations and differences in consumer behavior based on lifestyle differences because of living in that location Generation Z • Also known as Digital Natives or the Homeland Generation • Highly connected • Most are children of Generation X • Most diverse American generation ever • Expected to earn less than their parents Teens and Tweens • Teens – develop characteristics and behaviors of adulthood; brand skeptical • Tweens share many traits with younger siblings; brand loyal • Technology at center of both groups’ lives • Buy from social media; prefer Snapchat to Facebook Millennials • Embrace technology • Confident • Want fast product turnover, personally relevant promotions and interactive marketing platforms Source: Glyde Corporation Generation X • Spending power > $1 trillion • Cynical; do not like to be singled out/ marketed to • Do not like labels • Purchase prestigious and pricey brands • Oppose insincerity Baby Boomers • • • • • > 40% of the U.S. adult population Consumption oriented and influential 65-75% of disposable income in the U.S. Want to look and feel young Yuppies = status brand consumers Marketing to Older Consumers • • Promotional appeals – Promote the right products – Use the right appeals – Focus on the future – Use emotional appeals Older people and technology Gender based Behaviors Men Women • Superior affect and purchase • Superior affect and intentions as a result of ads that purchase intentions as are verbal, harmonious, a result of ads that are complex and category oriented. comparative, simple and attribute-oriented. • Shopping motives – Uniqueness • Less loyal to local – Assortment seeking merchants than – Social interaction female counterparts. – Browsing Thank you ...
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