PSY 320 - EXAM 2.pdf - EXAM 2 Stress \u2022 \u2022 \u2022 \u2022 \u2022 \u2022 \u2022 stress o Negative emotional experience accompanied by predictable biochemical

PSY 320 - EXAM 2.pdf - EXAM 2 Stress • • • • •...

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EXAM 2 Stress stress o Negative emotional experience accompanied by predictable biochemical, physiological, cognitive, and behavioral changes Aimed at altering the stressful event or accommodating to its effects o Stressors: event that cause stress Appraisal of stressors o Primary appraisal Understanding what an event is and what it will mean Events are appraised for their harm, threat, or challenge o Secondary appraisal Assessing whether personal resources are sufficient to meet the demands of the environment o Person-environment fit Results from process of appraising events, assessing potential resources, and responding to the events Fight or flight response o Body is aroused and motivated via the sympathetic nervous system and endocrine system when a threat is perceived Result mobilizes an organism to attack the threat or to flee o Advantage adaptive o Disadvantage can be harmful Three phases of sely e’s general adaptation syndrome o Alarm o Resistance o Exhaustion Criticisms of general adaptation syndrome o Assigns a limited role to psychological factors o Not all stressors produce the same endocrinological responses o Continued activation accumulates the most damage to physiological systems o Fails to address debilitating effects of stress Tend and befriend o In addition to fight or flight, people and animals responds to stress with: Social affiliation Nurturant behavior toward offspring o Oxytocin is released during stressful events Acts as an impetus for affiliate How stress causes illnesses o Direct physiological effects Elevated lipids Elevated blood pressure Decreased immunity
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Increased hormonal activity o Health behavior changes Increased smoking and alcohol use Decreased nutrition Decreased sleep Increased drug use Poor diet, little exercise Effects of long-term stress o Suppression of cellular immune function o Increased blood pressure and heart rate o Psychiatric disorders o Development of atherosclerosis o Problems with verbal functioning, memory, and concentration o Storage of fat in central visceral areas o Affects immune functioning and sleep Reactivity and allostatic load o Reactivity Degree of change that occurs in autonomic, neuroendocrine, and/or immune responses as a result of stress o Allostatic load Physiological costs of chronic exposure to the physiological changes from repeated or chronic stress o Indicators of allostatic load Decreased in cell-mediated immunity Inability to shut off cortisol in response to stress Lowered heart rate variability Elevated epinephirine levels A high waist to hip ratio (reflecting abdominal fat) Hippocampal volume (which can decrease with repeated stimulation of HPA) Problems with memory (an indirect measure of hippocampal functioning High plasma fibrinogen Elevated blood pressure Dimensions of stressful events o Negative events o Uncontrollable events o Ambiguous events o Overload o Central life domains Adapting to stress o
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