Brain f11 - The Biological Basis of Behavior The Biological...

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Unformatted text preview: The Biological Basis of Behavior The Biological Basis of Behavior Communication in the Nervous System Hardware: Glia structural support and insulation Neurons communication Str ucture of the Brain (cont.) 3 functions of glial cells Guide growth I nsulation Chemically modulate neurons growth and function Str ucture of the Brain (cont.) Neuron A brain cell with 2 specialized extensions Soma cell body Dendr ites receive Axon transmit away Figur e 3.1 Structure of t he neuron. Neurons are the communicat ion links of the nervous system. This diagram highlights the key parts of a neuron, including specialized receptor areas (dendrit es), the cell body (soma), the fiber along which impulses are transmit ted (axon), and the junctions across which chemical messengers carry signals to other neurons (synapses). Neurons vary considerably in size and shape and are usually densely int erconnect ed. Neural Communication Myelin sheath speeds up transmission Synapse point at which neurons interconnect Terminal Buttons end of axon; secrete neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters chemical messengers The Neural I mpulse Hodgkin & Huxley (1952)- giant squid Fluids inside and outside neuron Electrically charged particles (ions) Neuron at rest negative charge on inside compared to outside -70 millivolts resting potential The Action Potential Stimulation causes cell membrane to open briefly Positively charged ions rush in Shift in electrical charge travels along neuron The Action Potential Absolute Refractory Period All-or-none law Action Potential Reversal in electrical charge of an axon Figur e 3.2 The neural impulse. The electrochemical properties of the neuron allow it to t ransmit signals. The electric charge of a neuron can be measured with a pair of electrodes connected to a device called an oscilloscope, as Hodgkin and Huxley showed with a squid axon. Because of its except ionally thick axons, t he squid has frequently been used by scientist s studying the neural impulse. (a) At rest, the neuron is like a t iny wet batt ery with a resting pot ential of about 70 millivolts. (b) When a neuron is stimulated, a brief jump in it s electric potential occurs, resulting in a spike on t he oscilloscope recording of the neurons elect rical activity. This change in voltage, called an action pot ential, travels along the axon like a spark traveling along a trail of gunpowder. I on Channels and Transporters I on channels and ion transporters regulate the number of ions inside and outside the axon Sending Signals: Chemicals as...
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This note was uploaded on 09/21/2011 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Bradmorris during the Spring '11 term at Central Mich..

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Brain f11 - The Biological Basis of Behavior The Biological...

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