Outline, HIST 104, Class 6, Scientific Revolution, Tues Sept 13, 2011

Outline, HIST 104, Class 6, Scientific Revolution, Tues Sept 13, 2011

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History of the Modern World 104-1 Prof. Foray Tuesday, September 13, 2011 The Scientific Revolution (circa 1540-1700) I. Precedents: ancient and medieval science A. Ancient world: Aristotelian natural philosophers: recognize four essential elements, with natural place for each one B. Middle Ages: synthesis of Ptolemaic views and Christian theology 1. Ptolemaic, or geocentric, conception of the universe with fixed earth at the center II. Hallmarks of this new science-minded world view of the Early Modern period A. Rooted in Renaissance principles: individualism, humanism, secularism, and realism B. New methods of learning and investigating; focus on observation and scientific method III. Important contributors to the new world-view A. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543): modifies, but does not disregard entirely, the Ptolemaic world view 1. Publishes On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (1543), shortly before his death 2. Heliocentric system: sun at center of universe, with planets, including the earth,
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Unformatted text preview: revolving around sun = earth just another planet B. Tycho Brahe (1546-1601): meticulous observations and plotting of moons and planets (without telescope) C. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630): used Brahe’s observations to formulate 3 laws of planetary motion D. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642): law of inertia, and most celebrated findings in the field of astronomy 1. Doc .: The Starry Messenger (1610) and The Assayer (1619): determines Jupiter has moons, earth’s moon uneven; science as way to know the world and the universe 2. Famously made to answer to the Papal Inquisition in 1633 E. The great synthesizer, Isaac Newton (1642-1727): law of universal gravitation F. Francis Bacon (1561-1626) and René Descartes (1596-1650): important proponents of the scientific method IV. The effects—both short-term and long-term—of the Scientific Revolution A. Still an elite endeavor of intellectuals, not necessarily brought to the European masses B. Religion vs. science?...
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