Outline, HIST 104, Class 8, The Agricultural Revolution, Tues Sept 20, 2011

Outline, HIST 104, Class 8, The Agricultural Revolution, Tues Sept 20, 2011

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History of the Modern World 104 Prof. Foray Tuesday, September 20, 2011 The Agricultural Revolution: approx. 1750-1800 I. Before this revolution: how did the peasantry live, survive? A. Agricultural life in the Medieval and Early Modern periods: serfdom and noble control of peasants, precarious rural existence and high taxes, agriculture as family affair. 1. Importance of open-field system II. Agricultural developments of the mid-late 18 th century A. Rise of agronomy: the science of soil management and crop production B. Developments begin in the Low Countries (the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxemburg) 1. Densely populated cities, rise of overseas trade = more mouths to feed 2. In the 16 th and 17 th centuries, Dutch had already experimented, and succeeded, with water management C. Innovations and improvements then spread to England, where landlords take the lead 1. Iron plows, seed drill (Jethro Tull, 1701), fertilizers, crop rotation (of wheat, turnips, barley, and clover) 2. Threshing machine invented in 1784 by Andrew Miekle: separates edible grain from
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Unformatted text preview: straw 3. Harvests become larger, more predictable D. Tremendous advances in the field of water management: drainage projects, irrigation systems E. The enclosure system and the crisis it caused 1. Landowners, nobles, leading villagers stand to profit with enclosure system 2. Villagers defend their common land; particularly large struggles in England 3. By the second half of 18 th century: 6 million acres of common lands had been enclosed and developed; leads to improved production, but only for those who hold the land 4. Creation of tenant system, rural hierarchy (yet again) III. Consequences, and limits, of the agricultural revolution for the European population A. Increase in food production, especially wheat B. Spread of new techniques has mixed results C. Effects of the agricultural revolution upon women D. Development of the cottage industry (putting out system) = protoindustrialization...
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Outline, HIST 104, Class 8, The Agricultural Revolution, Tues Sept 20, 2011

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