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RelativeResourceManager - I I t ~ 124 13 CHAPTER...

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t ~. 124 CHAPTER 13 REFORMATIONS OF RELIGION That this might be-done more conveniently, not REVIEW QUESTIONS only were schools opened in old time, and individ- uals enjoined properly to teach their families, but 1. What is the purpose of catechism for John it was a received public custom and practice, to Calvin, and how does his purpose differ from question children in the churches on each of the that of Martin Luther? heads, which should be common and well known 2. Who, according to Calvin, should be taught cat- to all Christians. To secure this being done in or- echism, and who should do the teaching? der, there was written out a formula, which was 3. How did Calvin reconcile the unity of faith, called a Catechism or Institute. Thereafter the devil which he hoped his catechism would serve, miserably rending the Church of God, and bring- and the - diversity of local circumstances and ing upon it fearful ruin, (of which the marks are observances, which he expected would be the still too visible in the greater part of the world,) case? overthrew this sacred policy, and left nothing 4. What do this hope for unity and this admission behind but c~rtain trifles, which only beget super- of diversity tell us about the Reformation as stition, witn~ut any fruit of edification. Of this . Calvin understood it? description is that confirmation, as they call it, 5. Using the catechism as a measure of the re- full of gesticulations which, worse than ridiculous, formers' concerns and goals, how had these are fitted only for apes, and have no foundation changed between1530, when Luther published to rest upon. What we now bring forward, there- his Large Catechism, and 1545, when Calvin fore, is nothing else than the use of things which dedicated the Catechism of the Church of Ge- from ancient times were observed by Christians, neva? Do the titles reveal anything? and the true worshippers of God, and which never 6. Why did Calvin compose his catechism in Latin were laid aside until the Church Was wholly cor- rather than a vernacular language, as did Mar- rupted. tin Luther? . ST. IGNATIUS OF LOYOLA FROM The Spiritual Exercises St. Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556), the great mystic and founder of the Society of Jesus, was born into a hidalgo family and spent his early manhood in military ser- vice to the king of Spain. Wounded in battle, he spent his convalescence reading the lives of saints, which awoke in him a sense of spiritual inadequacy not unlike those which fired the religious engagements of Martin Luther and John Calvin. His early attempts at reconciliation, in the form of physical austerities practiced on pilgrimage to Montserrat and in the hermitage at Manresa, failed to reassure him of his soul's salvation, just as they failed to ease the spiritual torments of the young Luther. The scholastically trained Luther sought solace in the systematic study of the Bible; the uneducated Loyola found it in visions of God. Loyola spent the next decade educat- ing himself and seeking his mission. After a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in 1523, Loyola began his formal education by studying elementary Latin with schoolboys in I I
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