History Final Study Guide

History Final Study Guide - D ustin Lee I History Final...

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Dustin Lee History Final Study Guide Block F: History I: Early Civilizations–Egypt, Mesopotamia and Judaism Neolithic Revolution - 11,000 years ago, nomadic bands made a breakthrough: Farming - By producing their own food, they could remain in one place - Villages The First Farmers - Started planting seeds for food - Domesticate: tame - Meat provided protein Changing Ways of Life - Became food producers for the first time o Growth in population o Leading to more interaction among human communities - Divided work by gender and age - Status of women declined and men started to dominate - Low food = increased warfare o Men became warriors New Technologies - Calendars were being made - Used animals for farm work - Tools - Weave cloth from animal hair or vegetable fibers Akhenaton - About 1380B.C., Akhenaton challenged the powerful priests of Amon-Re - Devoted his life to the worship of Aton, minor god whose symbol was the sun’s disk - Akhenaton means “he who serves Aton” - With the support of his wire, Queen Nefertiti, he tried to sweep all the other gods in favor of Aton - His radical ideas had little success
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Dustin Lee History Final Study Guide Block F: History The Rosetta Stone - After the New Kingdom declined, Egyptians forgot the meanings of ancient hieroglyphics - Jean Champollion, 1800s, managed to decipher the Rosetta Stone - Flat, black stone that contained the same message carved in three different forms of script—hieroglyphics, demotic, and Greek - Champollion compared the three languages and deciphered hieroglyphics Cuneiform - From the Latin word cuneus for “wedge,” because it involved using s reed pen to make wedge-shaped marks on clay tablets - Type of writing invented by Sumerians - Cuneiform grew out of a system of pictographs that priests used to record goods brought to temple storehouses Sargon - The first empire builder - 2300 BC: Sargon invaded and conquered the city-states of Sumer - the ruler of neighboring Akkad - After he died, other invaders swept into the wide ally between the rivers, tumbling his empire into ruin Hammurabi the Lawgiver - King of Babylon - 1790 BC: Hammurabi brought much of Mesopotamia under his control - Code of Hammurabi: publication of a remarkable set of laws - He had artisans carve nearly 300 laws on a stone pillar for all to see - Hammurabi’s Code was the first attempt by a ruler to codify all the laws that would govern the state Nebuchadnezzar - 612 BC: revived the power of Babylon after Assurbanipal’s death - Rebuilt the canals, temples, walls, and palaces - Near his chief palace were the famous Hanging Gardens, knows as one of the wonders of the ancient world
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Dustin Lee History Final Study Guide Block F: History o Had the gardens built to please his wife, who was homesick for the hills where she had grown up Cyrus the Great - 539 BC: Babylon fell to the Persian armies of Cyrus the Great - Persians eventually controlled present-day Turkey, Iran, Egypt, Afghanistan, and Pakistan Darius - Ruled from 522 BC – 486 BC - Set up a government that became a model for later rulers
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This note was uploaded on 09/21/2011 for the course BIOG 1110 taught by Professor Randywayne during the Spring '09 term at Cornell.

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History Final Study Guide - D ustin Lee I History Final...

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