History Final Study Guide
Paleolithic: Hunters and Gatherers. Groups of 20-30 people.
Neolithic: Agriculture, farming, farm tools. Planting, domestication.
Civilization: Organized Gov., Complex Religions, Job Specialization, Social Classes,
Arts and Architecture, Public Works, Writing.
Human societies progress through war, migration, and trade. Famine leads to
migration, trade introduces new ideas.
Warfare brought new ways of life.
II: Early Civilizations and Empires in India
Indus Valley Civilization
The two main cities, Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, may have been twin capitals
Both were large, at around three miles in circumference
Dominated by a massive hilltop structure
Had huge warehouses to store grain brought in from outlying villages
Each city was laid out in an intricate grid pattern, with rectangular blocks larger than
modern city blocks
Houses were built of uniform oven-fired clay bricks
Had modern plumbing systems, with baths, drains, and water chutes that led into
sewers beneath the streets
Most people were farmers
Grew a wide variety of crops, including wheat, barley, melons, and dates
Some people were merchants and traders
By hugging the Arabian Sea coast and sailing up the Persian Gulf, Indian vessels reached
the cities of Sumer
May have developed their own system of writing
From clues such as statues, archaeologists have speculated about the religious beliefs of Indus
Like other ancient people, they were polytheistic