History Final Study Guide2 - Dustin Lee History Final Study...

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Dustin Lee History Final Study Guide Block F: History I. Early Civilizations Terms: Neolithic revolution: 11,000 years ago nomads learned to farm. New Stone Age/ Neolithic Age. Polytheism/Monotheism: Believe in many/one god(s). Akhenaton: Rosetta Stone: French scholar Jean Champollion deciphered this stone. It is a black stone that has the same message carved in hieroglyphics, demotic, and Greek. Epic of Gilgamesh: Story that describes underworld as grim place. Cuneiform: Form of writing. Reed pens made wedge-shaped marks on clay tablets Sargon: First Emperor known in history. Of the City-state Akkad. 2300 B.C. Hammurabi: 1790 B.C. King of Babylon. Had laws written onto stones for everyone to see. Known as Code of Hammurabi, had 300 laws. Nebuchadnezzar: Revived Babylon in 612 B.C. Had hanging gardens built. Cyrus the Great: Persian emperor. Created greatest empire of his time. Darius: Persian emperor set up government that into provinces and satraps. Zoroaster: Persian Religion. The Persian thinker helped unite empire by making one wise god, Ahura Mazda. Phoenician alphabet: Created alphabet, letters that represent spoken sounds. Torah: Jewish Sacred Text. Contained laws + events. Covenant: Binding agreement. God made covenant w/ Abraham. Patriarchal: Fathers and husbands held great legal and moral authority Prophet: Spiritual leaders who interpret God’s will. Diaspora: Scattering of people. (Jews) Concepts:
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Dustin Lee History Final Study Guide Block F: History 1. Paleolithic: Hunters and Gatherers. Groups of 20-30 people. Neolithic: Agriculture, farming, farm tools. Planting, domestication. Civilization: Organized Gov., Complex Religions, Job Specialization, Social Classes, Arts and Architecture, Public Works, Writing. 2. Human societies progress through war, migration, and trade. Famine leads to migration, trade introduces new ideas. Warfare brought new ways of life. II: Early Civilizations and Empires in India Indus Valley Civilization - The two main cities, Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, may have been twin capitals o Both were large, at around three miles in circumference o Dominated by a massive hilltop structure o Had huge warehouses to store grain brought in from outlying villages - Each city was laid out in an intricate grid pattern, with rectangular blocks larger than modern city blocks - Houses were built of uniform oven-fired clay bricks o Had modern plumbing systems, with baths, drains, and water chutes that led into sewers beneath the streets - Most people were farmers o Grew a wide variety of crops, including wheat, barley, melons, and dates - Some people were merchants and traders - By hugging the Arabian Sea coast and sailing up the Persian Gulf, Indian vessels reached the cities of Sumer - May have developed their own system of writing - From clues such as statues, archaeologists have speculated about the religious beliefs of Indus Valley people - Like other ancient people, they were polytheistic
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History Final Study Guide2 - Dustin Lee History Final Study...

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