History Review - xaShervinAfshari Mr.Spatola9D Review...

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xaShervin Afshari   5/20/07 Mr. Spatola 9 D           Review  Answers I. Early Civilizations Terms: Neolithic revolution:  11,000 years ago nomads learned to farm. New Stone  Age/Neolithic Age.  Polytheism/Monotheism: Believe in many/one god(s). Akhenaton: Rosetta Stone: French scholar Jean Champollion deciphered this stone. It is  a black stone that has the same message carved in hieroglyphics, demotic,  and Greek. Epic of Gilgamesh: Story that describes underworld as grim place. Cuneiform: Form of writing. Reed pens made wedge-shaped marks on clay  tablets Sargon: First Emperor known in history. Of the City-state Akkad. 2300 B.C. Hammurabi: 1790 B.C. King of Babylon. Had laws written onto stones for  everyone to see. Known as Code of Hammurabi, had 300 laws. Nebuchadnezzar: Revived Babylon in 612 B.C.  Had hanging gardens built. Cyrus the Great: Persian emperor. Created greatest empire of his time. Darius: Persian emperor set up government that into provinces and satraps.
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Zoroaster: Persian Religion. The Persian thinker helped unite empire by  making one wise god, Ahura Mazda. Phoenician alphabet: Created alphabet, letters that represent spoken sounds. Torah: Jewish Sacred Text. Contained laws + events. Covenant: Binding agreement. God made covenant w/ Abraham. Patriarchal: Fathers and husbands held great legal and moral authority Prophet: Spiritual leaders who interpret God’s will. Diaspora: Scattering of people. (Jews) Concepts: 1. Paleolithic: Hunters and Gatherers. Groups of 20-30 people. Neolithic: Agriculture, farming, farm tools. Planting, domestication. Civilization: Organized Gov., Complex Religions, Job Specialization, Social  Classes, Arts and Architecture, Public Works, Writing. 2. Human societies progress through war, migration, and trade. Famine leads to  migration, trade introduces new ideas.  Warfare brought new ways of life. II.Empires in India Terms: Indus Valley Civilization - The two main cities, Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, may have been twin capitals
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o Both were large, at around three miles in circumference o Dominated by a massive hilltop structure o Had huge warehouses to store grain brought in from outlying villages - Each city was laid out in an intricate grid pattern, with rectangular blocks larger  than modern city blocks - Houses were built of uniform oven-fired clay bricks o Had modern plumbing systems, with baths, drains, and water chutes that  led into sewers beneath the streets - Most people were farmers o Grew a wide variety of crops, including wheat, barley, melons, and dates - Some people were merchants and traders -
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