History Review - xaShervin Afshari Mr. Spatola 9 D 5/20/07...

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xaShervin Afshari 5/20/07 Mr. Spatola 9 D Review Answers I. Early Civilizations Terms: Neolithic revolution: 11,000 years ago nomads learned to farm. New Stone Age/Neolithic Age. Polytheism/Monotheism: Believe in many/one god(s). Akhenaton: Rosetta Stone: French scholar Jean Champollion deciphered this stone. It is a black stone that has the same message carved in hieroglyphics, demotic, and Greek. Epic of Gilgamesh: Story that describes underworld as grim place. Cuneiform: Form of writing. Reed pens made wedge-shaped marks on clay tablets Sargon: First Emperor known in history. Of the City-state Akkad. 2300 B.C. Hammurabi: 1790 B.C. King of Babylon. Had laws written onto stones for everyone to see. Known as Code of Hammurabi, had 300 laws. Nebuchadnezzar: Revived Babylon in 612 B.C. Had hanging gardens built. Cyrus the Great: Persian emperor. Created greatest empire of his time.
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Darius: Persian emperor set up government that into provinces and satraps. Zoroaster: Persian Religion. The Persian thinker helped unite empire by making one wise god, Ahura Mazda. Phoenician alphabet: Created alphabet, letters that represent spoken sounds. Torah: Jewish Sacred Text. Contained laws + events. Covenant: Binding agreement. God made covenant w/ Abraham. Patriarchal: Fathers and husbands held great legal and moral authority Prophet: Spiritual leaders who interpret God’s will. Diaspora: Scattering of people. (Jews) Concepts: 1. Paleolithic: Hunters and Gatherers. Groups of 20-30 people. Neolithic: Agriculture, farming, farm tools. Planting, domestication. Civilization: Organized Gov., Complex Religions, Job Specialization, Social Classes, Arts and Architecture, Public Works, Writing. 2. Human societies progress through war, migration, and trade. Famine leads to migration, trade introduces new ideas. Warfare brought new ways of life.
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II. Empires in India Terms: Indus Valley Civilization: peninsula into Indian Ocean. Deccan. Flourished by then disappeared. Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. Hilltops. Plumbing. Clay bricks. Farmers Aryan Invaders: Vedas (collection of prayers). Brahmins (priests). Kashatriyas. Vaisyas. Caste system Mahabhrata: India’s greatest epic. Religious beliefs Hinduism: Brahman. Vishnu (preserver). Shiva (destroyer) Atman: essential self Moksha: union with Brahman Karma: actions Dharma: moral duties Ahimsa: non-violence Jainism: everyone has the power to perform sacred rites Siddhartha Gautama: Buddhism. Fasted and sat under a tree for 48 days Nirvana: removal from cycle of rebirth Concepts: 1. Buddhism, Jainism, Hinduism, Mahabharata and Ramayana. 2.
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This note was uploaded on 09/21/2011 for the course BIOG 1110 taught by Professor Randywayne during the Spring '09 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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History Review - xaShervin Afshari Mr. Spatola 9 D 5/20/07...

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