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Unformatted text preview: VIII: Rise of Europe and High Middle Ages Terms: Charles Martel: Lead the Battle of Tours; defeated the Muslims Orthodox Christianity: Battle of Tours: Refer to Charles Martel Excommunication: cannot receive sacraments or a Christian burial Interdict: excommunication of a town or city Clunaic Reform: goals are to power of nobles and end abuses Pope Gregory VII: banned lay investiture; only pope has the right to appoint and install bishops in office Francis of Assisi: served sick and poor; gave up his wealth Agricultural revolution: iron plow; harnesses for horses resulting in faster plowing; windmills Three-field system: 1/3 grain; 1/3 legumes (fertility to the soil); 1/3 unused Guilds: levied taxes; controlled prices of food; cooperated to protect their own economic interests William the Conqueror: raised an army and won the backing of the pope; At the battle of Hastings, they defeated Harold Domesday Book: used as a survey as a basis for taxation...
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- Spring '09