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Lecture 3 - Functional Groups Functional group an atom or...

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2-1 Functional Groups Functional group: an atom or group of atoms within a molecule that shows a characteristic set of physical and chemical properties Functional groups are important for three reasons: 1. the units by which we divide organic compounds into classes 2. the sites of characteristic chemical reactions 3. the basis for naming organic compounds
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2-2 Hydrocarbons Alkane: single bonds, sp 3 carbons Cycloalkane: carbons form a ring Alkene: double bond, sp 2 carbons Cycloalkene: double bond in ring Alkyne: triple bond, sp carbons Aromatic: generaly contains a benzene ring
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2-3 Alcohols contain an -OH ( hydroxyl ) group Ethanol may also be written as a condensed structural formula H-C-C-O-H H H H H : : -C-O-H Ethanol (an alcohol) Functional group CH 3 -CH 2 -OH CH 3 CH 2 OH or
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2-4 Alcohols alcohols are classified as primary (1°), secondary (2°), or tertiary (3°) depending on the number of carbon atoms bonded to the carbon bearing the -OH group CH 3 -C-OH CH 3 -C-OH CH 3 H CH 3 -C-OH CH 3 CH 3 A 1° alcohol A 2° alcohol A 3° alcohol H H R-C-OH R 1 -C-OH R 2 H 1° alcohols 2° alcohols 3° alcohols H H R 2 -C-OH R 3 R 1 R = carbon substituent
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2-5 Amines contain an amino group ; an sp 3 -hybridized nitrogen bonded to one, two, or three carbon atoms an amine may by 1°, 2°, or 3° CH 3 N H H CH 3 N H CH 3 CH 3 N CH 3 CH 3 Methylamine (a 1° amine) Dimethylamine (a 2° amine) Trimethylamine (a 3° amine) : : :
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2-6 Aldehydes and Ketones contain a carbonyl (C=O) group C H O CH 3 -C-H O CH 3 -C-CH 3 O C O Functional group Acetaldehyde (an aldehyde) Acetone (a ketone) Functional group
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2-7 Carboxylic Acids contain a carboxyl (-COOH) group C O O H CH 3 -C-O-H O CH 3 COOH CH 3 CO 2 H : : : : or or Acetic acid (a carboxylic acid) Functional group
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2-8 Carboxylic Esters Ester: a derivative of a carboxylic acid in which the carboxyl hydrogen is replaced by a carbon group C O O Functional group CH 3 -C-O-CH 2 -CH 3 Ethyl acetate (an ester) : : : : O
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2-9 Carboxylic Amide C arboxylic amide , commonly referred to as an amide : a derivative of a carboxylic acid in which the -OH of the -COOH group is replaced by an amine the six atoms of the amide functional group lie in a plane with bond angles of approximately 120° CH 3 -C-N-H H Acetamide (a 1° amide) O C N O Functional group ???
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2-10 Classification Review
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