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Chapter 10

# Chapter 10 - Chapter 10 10.1 The atmospheres total mass is...

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Chapter 10 10.1 The atmosphere’s total mass is approximately 5.3 x 10¹ metric tons, a huge figure, but still only about one millionth of the earth’ total mass When it is pure, oxygen supports very rapid combustion. When it is diluted with nitrogen at moderate temperatures such as in the atmosphere, however, oxygen’s oxidizing capability is tamed somewhat Parts per million (ppm) and parts per billion (ppb) by volume are used to describe the concentrations of components of the atmosphere Troposphere – The surface to an altitude of about 10 km, the temperature of the atmosphere decreases with increasing altitude Stratosphere – Above the troposphere, from about 12 to 50 km above the earth’s surface The lower limit of the stratosphere varies from night to day over the globe (As low as 8 to 9 km in Polar Regions) 10.2 Gases have a number of properties in common: 1. Gases can be compressed 2. Gases exert pressure on whatever surrounds them 3. Gases expand into whatever volume is available 4. Gases mix completely with one another 5. Gases are described in terms of their temperature and pressure, the volume occupied, and the amount (numbers of molecules or moles) of gas present Pressure – Force per unit area

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A gas exerts pressure on every surface it contacts, no matter what the direction of contact 10.3 Kinetic molecular theory – a gas consist of tiny molecules in constant, rapid, random motion Four fundamental concepts that form the Kinetic molecular theory: 1. A gas is composed of molecules whose size is much smaller than the distances between them 2. Gas molecules move randomly at various speeds and in every possible direction 3. Except when gas molecules collide, forces of attraction and repulsion between them are negligible 4. When collisions between molecules occurs, the collisions are elastic The speeds of colliding molecules may change, but the total kinetic energy of two colliding molecules is the same after a collision as before the collision 5.
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Chapter 10 - Chapter 10 10.1 The atmospheres total mass is...

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