Chapter 11 - Chapter 11 11.1 Most liquids such as water alcohol and gasoline are substances whose condensation temperatures are above room

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Chapter 11 11.1 Most liquids, such as water, alcohol, and gasoline, are substances whose condensation temperatures are above room temperature. Some liquids, such as molten salts and liquid polymers, have no corresponding vapor state, however, so condensation of their vapors has no meaning. Because confined liquids are difficult to compress and their molecules move in all directions, they can transmit applied pressure equally in all directions. Viscosity – The resistance of a liquid to flow (Ex: Water has low viscosity, honey has high viscosity) Viscosity decreases as temperature increases because the molecules have more kinetic energy at higher temperature and the attractive intermolecular forces are more easily overcome Molecules at the liquid surface have intermolecular interactions only with molecules below or beside them, but not above them. Surface tension – The energy required to expand a liquid surface due to unevenness of attractive forces at the liquid surface which cause the surface to contract (Higher for liquids with stronger intermolecular attractions) Capillary action – The reason why water rises when a glass tube with a small diameter is put into water Meniscus – The liquid surface (Concave for water) Mercury in a small-diameter tube has a dome-shaped (convex) meniscus because the attractive forces between mercury atoms are stronger than the attraction between the mercury and the glass wall 11.2 Volatility – The tendency of a liquid to vaporize (Increases as temperature increases) When the temperature of the liquid is raised, a larger number of molecules exceed the energy threshold, and evaporation proceeds more rapidly (Ex: Hot water evaporates more easily than cold water) A liquid in an open container will eventually evaporate completely because air currents and diffusion take away most of the gas phase molecules before they can reenter the liquid phase In a closed container, no molecules can escape (If the liquid is injected into an evacuated, closed container, the rate of vaporization will at first far exceed the rate of condensation Dynamic equilibrium – A state in which molecules are entering and leaving the liquids state at
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This note was uploaded on 09/21/2011 for the course CHE 131 taught by Professor Kerber during the Fall '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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Chapter 11 - Chapter 11 11.1 Most liquids such as water alcohol and gasoline are substances whose condensation temperatures are above room

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