ISB_Notes_Chapter_2 - ISB Notes Chapter 2 Pages 262-267 2-1...

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2-1 What is science? *Scientists collect data and develop theories, models, and laws about how nature works. I. Science is a search for order in nature. - Science- is an endeavor to discover how nature works and to use that knowledge to make predictions about what is likely to happen in nature. Based on assumptions that events in the natural world follow orderly cause and effect patterns that can be understood through careful observation, measurements, experimentation, and modeling. 1. Identify a problem 2. Find out what is known about the problem 3. Ask a ? To be investigated 4. Design an experiment to answer the question and collect data. Data- information needed to answer their questions, scientists often conduct experiments, or procedures carried out under controlled conditions to gather information and test ideas. 5. Propose a hypothesis to explain the data. Scientific Hypothesis- possible explanation of what they observe in nature. 6. Make testable predictions 7. Test the predictions with further experiments, models, or observations. Model- an approximate representation or simulation of a system being studied. 8. Accept or Reject they hypothesis- Scientific theory-a well tested and widely accepted scientific hypothesis. Peer Review- happens when scientists report details of the methods they used, the results of their experiments and models, and the reasoning behind their hypotheses for other scientists working in the same field (their peers) to examine and criticize. - Scientific Knowledge advances because scientists continually question measurements, make new measurements, and try to come up with new and better hypotheses. II. Scientific Theories and Laws are the most important results of science. - Scientific theories are not to be taken lightly, if an overwhelming body of observations and measurements support a scientific hypothesis, it becomes a scientific theory. - Scientific/Natural Law- a well tested and widely accepted description of what we find happening over and over in the same way in nature. Ex) “law of gravity” - Scientists collect data and analyze and develop theories, models and laws that describe and explain how nature works. III. The Results of science can be tentative, reliable or unreliable. - Fundamental part of science is testing. Some science is more reliable than other science, depending on how carefully it has been done and on how thoroughly the hypotheses, models, methods, and results have been tested. - Tentative science/frontier science- preliminary results that capture news headlines are controversial because they have not been widely tested and accepted by peer review. They are not yet considered reliable.
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2008 for the course ISB 201 taught by Professor Besaw during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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ISB_Notes_Chapter_2 - ISB Notes Chapter 2 Pages 262-267 2-1...

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