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A_LABORATORY_2_web - Lab 2 Axial Skeleton Skull LABORATORY...

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Lab 2. Axial Skeleton: Skull LABORATORY 2 AXIAL SKELETON: THE SKULL The structure and adaptations of the human skull are striking and distinctive. They reflect our unique adaptation as a species, our impressive brain size, our sophisticated sensory orientation, and our upright posture. At birth the skull is not fully mature, an adaptation that facilitates birth and the need for nervous system growth during the first few years of life. The skull is divided into facial and cranial components, and the respective bones often lose their identity because of a fusion process that restricts movement at many articulations. Skeletal bones are classified as cranial or facial depending on whether they make up part of the cranium or not, and are further classified as single or paired. In addition to protecting the brain, the skull also houses important sensory organs, facilitates breathing and eating functions, resonates sound waves from the vocal folds, provides for mastication, and gives us distinctive personal characteristics that aid in individual recognition. In this laboratory we will examine adult and fetal skulls learning the bones, important structural landmarks on these bones, skull adaptations, movements and articulations, and general surface features of the skull. OBJECTIVES Study the structure of the skull and complete an understanding of the structure of the axial skeleton and its functions. Identify the bones of the skull and their important landmarks. Study the fetal skull and learn its unique adaptations. Review the articulations of the skull. METHODS AND MATERIALS Identify the bones of the skull, important structures, and articulation by studying the skulls, disarticulated skull bones, and models available. Good skull illustrations will be a valuable learning aid as well. Materials available for study include the following: Human skulls, skull showing sinuses, fetal skulls, fetal skeleton, disarticulated skull bones, skull with bones disarticulated in exploded view, model showing trigeminal nerve, model of temporal bone showing inner ear, and model of orbit with eye. Please handle all skulls carefully and with two hands. Use only the pointers provided – never use a pencil or pen as a pointer.
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Lab 2. Axial Skeleton: Skull GREEK & LATIN ORIGINS OF WORDS USED WITH THE SKULL Table 2.1. Words commonly used in the study of the skull. Definition Example acoust G. hearing acoustic meatus alveolus L. air space, sockets alveolar margin chiasma G. a crossing optic chiasma concha L. shell nasal concha condyle G. A rounded surface occipital condyle corona L. A crown coronal suture cranium G. the skull cranial vault cribriform L. sieve-like cribriform plate crista galli L. cock’s comb crista galli ethmoid G. resembling a sieve ethmoid bone fossa L. a ditch glenoid fossa lacrima L. tears, weeping lacrimal canal lambda G.
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A_LABORATORY_2_web - Lab 2 Axial Skeleton Skull LABORATORY...

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