lab1_exercise[1]

lab1_exercise[1] - Lab 1 Axial Skeleton Vertebral column...

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Unformatted text preview: Lab 1. Axial Skeleton: Vertebral column and rib cage LABORATORY 1 AXIAL SKELETON: VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND RIB CAGE 7 The axial skeleton is composed of the skull, vertebral column and rib cage. The vertebral column is made up of a series of about 32 vertebrae. These develop along the midline of the back and provide support for the attachment of the appendicular skeleton, support for posture (bipedal posture in humans), and protection of a mmbaofsofiorgansmcludmgthecenuflnmvwssystmhemtmdlungs. Beforebirth, thevertebraehave a simple, flexed configuration, called the primary or fetal arch. During postnatal development, two secondaryarchesdevelop, resultingina series offomarchesthatfacilitatebipedalposntre. Throughthe developmental process, the vertebrae in each of these arches become specialized structurally and fimctionally, and can be readily identified. Vertebrae are classified as irregular bones because of their structtual uniqueness and complexity, and are numbered consecutively fi'om superior to inferior. Each has a eonspicnousvertebral formthatprotectsthespinalcord, aseriec ofdistinctivebonyprocessesflmt suppm'ttheattaehmentofmuscles andligaments, andseveral articularsm'faces. Theribcageis composedof astmum,aseiiesof12pairsofnbs,andthecostalcartilages. Thestemumdevelopsfi'omasegmented series of ossicles that ultimately become fused into a single bone with three distinct regions in the adult. The ribs develop into a series of 12 pairs of elongate, "flat bones" that have important functions in breathing, in protecting the thoracic viscera, supporting the sternum, and serving as an important muscle attachment smfaee. Understandingthcsu'uetm'eofthevertebral columnis importanttotheunderstandingofthe evoltuionofuprightposture—ash'ikinghmnancharactenstic. Agoodunderstandingofthespinalcolunmis alsoimportantforthetmderstandingofmanyclmicalconcems such as slippcddiscs andscoliosis, pinched nerves, etc. Because ofthe size of modem humans, and the design of the spinal column we often experience problems with the spinal colmnn and its articulations. In this laboratory we will examine the structure of vertebrae, the spinal curvatures, and the rib cage. You will also be introduced to several important kinds of articulations, e.g., symphysis and gliding synovial joints, and the important movements they support. OBJECTIVES Cl Learn the structure, functions and articulations of the axial skeleton (excluding the skull). L'l Snidyarficiilatedanddisarticiilatedvmtebraenibsmndstema. 0 Compare homologous structm'es on cat and chicken skeletons and note similarities and difl'ercnces compared to the human El Compare the axial skeletons of various primates and other vertebrate animals on exhibit. CI Visualize the changes in the skeleton that facilitated the gradual evolution to upright posture and bipedal locomotion. Lab 1. Axial Skeleton: Vertebral column and rib cage METHODS- Study the skeletons, and dismimlated bones available, learning the names of the bones, how to recognize them, andthevarious sb'uetlnesand theosteologicallandmarks indieatedbelow. Snldythemodels, charts andexhibits available inthe laboratory. Theskeletal materials youwillbe studying are, forthemostpart, real human bones. Most of these bones are fragile, difficult to repair and not replaceable. For this reason you are requested to have clean hands when handling these specimens, and to never use pens or pencils as pointers. Wooden pointers will be provided for your use. In your study please handle all specimens with greatcare,andcarefullyputthemawayafieryomsmdy. GREEK & LATIN ORIGINS OF WORDS USED WITH THE AXIAL SKELETON Table 1.]. Words common] usedinthestu of the . I on mam-Ill ‘M l L i is III- : M. G. I . late, leaf inns-‘- ofavertebm tbaekwsrds 2. fl" Ii E mme. nmbarcinvatln'e mm L. ubrimnofstemmn m G. esomh,theback otochord i. olios G. - F} scoliosis - I neic eavi ertebra L- a 'eal vertebra In eta . i gs ii]? oramen . ; Lab 1. Axial Skeleton: Vertebral column and rib cage Table 1.2. Bones of the adult human skeleton. There are approximately 206 bones making up the adult skeleton Some bones are 14" others are ' Name Skull, Cranial (8) Frontal (2 filsed) Vertebme (26) Cervical 7 R1115 m 1 Superior appendage (64) m _ 133 U! V wwwuunmu NM NM NM N N M on c: A Lab 1. Axial Shleton: Vertebral column and rib cage EXERCISE 1. THE STRUCTURE OF VERTEBRAE ObMWofhmvaebrmandumfimflmnfmstllmdmmksmfladaptafimsimfic eachof the following structures: Pedicle,lamina,spinous process, transverse processes, superior articular prmesses,hfmimmficduprocesses,supmimarficflmfacfls,mfedmarficmmfwcts Outhoracic vertebraelocatcthefaoetsmiddmnifmasmthebodicsofmevatebImmdflmUansversearficularfacets ontheu-ansverseprocesses. Examineanarficulatcdspinalcohnnnandidenfifythefollowingfonmina (openings or passageways): Vertebral, intervertebra], andh’ansverse formnina, andthesacralcanaland hiamslocatetheintervertebral discs (offibrocarfilage). Locatethesynovialfacet articulations,andthe ' symphysis joints between adjacent vertebrae. Figure 1.1. General view of Vertebra. Label all landmarks shown. Transverse view flel't) and lateral view (right). Wratfimctions are served by the vertebrae? What matonfical specializations are apparent in the structure of vertebrae? EXERCISE 2. COMPARISON OF VERTEBRAE TYPES AND SPECIALIZATIONS Obtainspecimensofcervical,thm’acic,htmbar, andsacralvertebraeandcomparethemfortheirstmcmral and adaptive uniqueness. Learn the landmarks and characteristics that will permit you to among them. Identifythesu'lwmres indicatedbelow. I Cervical vertebrae (7) -- hifid Spinous processes, transverse foramina for vertebral artery, light weight. Thoracic vertebrae (12) - spinous process elongate and is directed inferiorly, facets or demifaccts on bodies, articular facets on transverse processes (for rib articulation). 8 Lab 1. Axial Skeleton: Vertebral column and rib cage Lumbar vertebrae (5) -- heavy bodies, thick block-like transverse processes, interlocking superior and inferior articular facets. Figure 1.2. Human vertebra types. Cervical (top left), thoracic (top right), lumbar (bottom left and right. Sacral vertebrae (= sacrum) (5) -— fusion of 5 vertebrae. O. Auricular surface 0 sacral promontory, o median sacral crest, - sacral tuberosity, o sacral canal, I ala, - sacral cornu, 0 body. dorsal and ventral sacral foramen, Coccyx (3-5) — tail vertebrae, note their location on skeleton and their relativelydegenerate structure and fimction in humans. Lab 1. Axial Skeleton: Vertebral column and rib cage Figure 1.3. Sacrum, posterior (upper and lower left) View and anterior view (lower right). Coccyx is appended inferior to sacrum. How are the kinds of vertebrae classified? How do we use so many difl‘erent kinds of vertebrae? Which kind of vertebrae demonstrates the most anatomical specialization? Explain the specializations and how they are adaptive. It is said that the vertebrae are serially homologous. What does this mean? 10 Lab 1. Axial Skeleton: Vertebral column and rib cage Cervical vertebra seven is called the "vertebra prominens". What is distinctive and important about this vertebra? Table 1.3 Distin I uishin characteristics of vertebrae. _mw slender often bifid long and thick short and blunt articular facets] dcmifacets present Absent on vertebral bod for ribs articular facets for ribs absent present Absent on transverse recesses EXERCISE 3. THE ATLAS AND AXIS VERTEBRAE Examine specimens of cervical vertebrae 1 and 2. Vertebrae are numbered consecutively from superior to inferior, by type. The atlas vertebra is C-l (i.e., "cervical one") and the axis is C-2. The articulations between bones usually are named by the articulating bones (i.e., the atlantoaxial is the articulation between the atlas and axis vertebrae). Study the structure of the following vertebrae using disarticulated and articulated bones, learning the indicated structures. Atlas: Superior articular facet, transverse forarnen, anterior tubercle, posterior tubercle, tubercle for transverse ligament (which separates the dens from the spinal cord). Axis: Dens, groove for transverse atlantal ligament, superior articular facet, body, bifid spinous process. Atlantooccipital articulation —— characteristic "yes" movement. Asynovialhinge joint. Atlantoaxial articulation -- characteristic "no" movement. A synovia] pivot joint. Figure 1. 4. Cervical vertebrae one and two, called the atlas (left) and axis (right). 11 Lab 1. Axial Skeleton: Vertebral column and rib cage Explain how the atlas vertebra facilitates the "yes" movement of the head, and how the atlas and axis vertebrae facilitate the "no " movement of the head. Where is the body of the atlas vertebra? Describe the articulation between the atlas vertebra and the occipital condyles of the skull. Describe the nature of the articulation between the atlas and axis vertebrae. EXERCISE 4. THE SPINAL CURVATURES On the adult skeleton, locate the following curves and note how each contributes to the characteristic "S— shaped" curvature of the spine: Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral. Compare the spinal curvatures of the fetus with that of the adult. Cufvieai Wfaaic Lumbar “1 B Figure 1.5. Adult vertebral column, lateral view (A) Indicate the location of the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral arches on the illustration. B. Primary arch of most common vertebrates (above). Spinal arches of Apes and spinal arch of human fetus (below). 12 Lab 1. Axial Skeleton: Vertebral column and rib cage Considering we begin life with a primary fetal spinal curvature that is flexed, which of the adult arches should be considered as primary and which should be considered secondary? How does the spinal curvature of the fetus dijfiirfiom that of the adult? Make a sketch of the adult and fetal curvatures. How are the carvatures of the adult spine adaptive? Hyperlordosis, hyperbzphosis and scoliosis are abnormal curvatures that may develop in the spine. Explain what each is and how each may efifirct the fitnctioning of the body. What are the most important fimctions of the spinal column and vertebrae? Explain how their anatomical structure supports and facilitates theSefimctions. EXERCISE 5. STRUCTURE OF THE RIB CAGE Examine the structure and parts of the rib cage and learn the indicated structures. Sternum: Manubrium, body, and xiphoid process. Landmarks: Suprasternal (jugular) notch, clavicular notch, costal notches, sternal angle. Articulations: Clavicular, sternocostal, sternal symphysis, xiphisternal . body of sternum . clavicle . clavicular notch . costal cartilage of 3rd rib . first sternocostal articulation . mannbrium . seventh sternocostal articulation sternal angle (location) . sternal symphysis . suprasternal (=jugular) notch . xiphoid sternum 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 l 1 Figure 1.6. Sternum, anterior view, showing articulation of clavicle, xiphoid sternum, and costal cartilages. Note xiphoid sternum is ossified and that the sternum has a slight asymmetry. Label indicated parts on the drawing. 13 Lab 1. Axial Skeleton: Vertebral column and rib cage Ribs. Examhmanb,tcmnmcmdicatedsuum,andhowmidmfifymedifimmdsombs. Parts: Head, neck, tubercle, body, costal groove, pitlfor oostal cartilage, angle, arficularfacets (forbodyoflhoracicvertebraeandtansverseprocesses) Examine an articulated skeleton and locate the following: Costal carfilages Kinds of ribs: True, false, and floating Figure 1.7. Structure of a rib. 14 Lab 1. Axial Skeleton: Vertebral column and rib cage Langleofrib 2.oostalgrooveuffib 3.x:tioularfaoetfor mammof vertebra 4. articlilarfioetforbodyofvertehm 5.firstn"b 6. neck ofrib 7.thomoicrib S.pittbtoostnlwrliluge 9.stemnlmdufzib 10.1ubeiclc 11. vettebmlmdofrib Figure 18. 3. Typical rib structure (left), and rib number 1 (right). Label indicated structures. ' What is the dtfirence between afat’se rib and a true rib? Why are some false ribs called 'ffloating”? Of what specific kind of tissue are the costal cartilage and nphotd sternum composed? How is the use of this kind of tissue adaptive? - - EXERCISE 6. ARTICULATIONS OF THE AXIAL SKELETON Thespinalcolmnnpmvidesforaremnrkahleamolmtofmovement amongitsparts. 'I‘hesemovements are facilitatedhy severallcinds ofarticulations. Specific articulations arenormallyidmtifiedbythenames ofthe palticipating bones. Locate each of the following kinds of articulations and visualize the movements facilitated by each Intervertebral (symphysis) Sacroiliac (modified gliding) Atlantooocipital (hinge) Medial atlantoaxial (pivot) Intervertebml facet (gliding) Costovcltebral (gliding) Costotransverse (gliding) Describe how ribs articulate to the vertebral column, and the nature of the movement that occurs. flat is flexion and extension of the spine? How are these movements accomplished? 15 Lab 1. Axial Skeleton: Vertebral column and rib cage EXERCISE 7 EXAMINATION OF THE FETAL SKELETON Examine the spinal column and rib cage of the fetus and compare its structure with that of the adult. Outline the similarities and the differences that are apparent. From your observations, what can you infer about the state of development of the Spine and rib cage at time of birth? What might you infer about the number of bones that actually contribute to the make up the human sternum? After comparing the sterna of the human fetus and adult, what inferences can you make about the development and morphology of the adult sternum? After comparing the sacrum of the fetus and adult, what inferences can you make about the nature of the sacrum at birth and the nature of its subsequent development to that of the adult? Figure 1.8. Human fetal skeleton at time of Birth, anterior and lateral views. 16 Lab 1. Axial Skeleton: Vertebral column and rib cage EXERCISE 8. COMPARISON OF THE AXIAL SKELETON OF HUMANS WITH THOSE OF OTHER VERTEBRATE ANIMALS Compare the composition and structure of the vertebral columns and rib cages of the human, cat and chicken, making special reference to the sternum, sacrum, spinal column and spinal curvatures. In what ways are they similar? In what ways are they difierent? What evidence can you find that suggests that the three skeletons have homologous parts? What unique adaptations can you infer by comparing the spinal column and rib cages of these three species? Figure 1.9. Articulated skeleton of a chicken. 17 Lab I. Axial Skeleton: Vertebral column and rib cage FIGURE 1.10. DOMESTIC CAT SKELET 0N. Self test —- Modified True False. Indicate if each of the following statements is true. Make each incorrect statement correct by replacing the underlined words with the correct word or phrase. The part of the body called posterior in humans would be called Lie—lag in a quadruped such as a dog. The head is at the superior end of the body in humans and is at the m end in a quadruped such as a dog. The transverse process lies on the M aspect of a vertebra. The spinous process of a vertebra lies on the mil aspect of a vertebra The atlas vertebra is m; to the axis vertebra. The sacnrm is m to the lumbar vertebrae in humans The coccyx is m to the sacrum in quadrupeds such as cats A transverse section through a vertebra divides it into asymmetrical anterior and posterior parts. PWHP‘VP‘P’N? A median section through a vertebra divides it into right and left equal parts. .— O . The skull of a quadruped is attached to the cephalic end of the spinal column .— .— . The human spine is composed of 3 1-34 vertebrae in most persons. .— M . The rib cage contains 12 pairs of ribs in humans. .— DJ . The vertebrae of humans, cats and birds are said to be homologous because they appear to have had a common evolutionary origin, and therefore appear to be older than the species in which they are found today. 18 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. Lab 1. Axial Skeleton: Vertebral column and rib cage composition and function. Hamsdifl'erfi‘omgreat apes, suchasthechimpanzcejnthatwetendtohavelonggmmdshgglegs. A vertebra articulates with the one above by means of a pair of inferior articular facets. The spinal cord is located within the Mom. Spinal nerves exit the vertebral canal via the transverse foramina. Vertebrae are said to be my hmglogous with each other, because they arise from similar developmental processes in the embryo. The skull articulates with the a_x,i§ vertebra of the spinal column. Normally adult humans only have three to five coccygeal vertebrae. The gig vertebra can be easily distinguished because it lacks a vertebral body. The primary fetal curvature of the spine remains evident in the adult human as the thoracic and lumbar curves. The sml curve is present in humans, but not in other vertebrate animals. The sternumofhmnans isdistinctively segmented attimeofbirth, bmnormallybecomcsfusedintoa single bone by adulthood. The clavicular notch of the sternum is found on the xiphoid was. The most inferior part of the sternum is called the mubrjum. Thecostalgrooveofaribislocatedonitsmorsmface. The ribs articulate with the M vertebrae. When one bends over to touch their toes, the spine undergoes a movement called glam Ribs that do not articulate directly to sternum are called Mg ribs. The joints between the bodies of the Vertebrae are classified as m joints. The inferior five pairs of ribs are called flinging ribs. The two pairs of ribs that lack an anterior cartilage articulation with the stetnmn are and called m ribs. Humans have two secondarily developed spinal curvatures called the lumbg and magpie curves. An exoessive amount of curvature in the lumbar arch is called Lyphosis. Abnormal lateral curvature of the spinal column is called Lordosis. During early development, six vertebrae join and fuse together to form the sacrum in humans. The jugular notch is located on the superior aspect of the body of the sternum. Thesternal angleismeasuredatthejlmetureofmubrimn and Myofthe sternum. m vertebrae can easily be distinguished by thepresence oftransverse feminine. Igoracic vertebrae have heavy bodies, wide blocky spinous processes, and have u'anSVerse processes lacking articular facets. 19 Name: Lab section: LABORATORY 1 REPORT VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND RIB CAGE FORMAT: Group report (2—4 students per group); written; due next lab. I. Make a drawing of a cervical vertebra, showing the important structures studied in this exercise. Label the parts and indicate the main function of each. 2. What evidence can you find that the axial skeletons of higher vertebrates have homologous parts? What inferences would this lead scientists to conclude? 3. Explain how the spinal curvatures of the adult differ from that of the fetus. Make a sketch illustrating these curvatures. ‘ 4. Describe the state of development of the vertebrae, spinal column and rib cage of humans at time of birth. Explain how this is adaptive. 20 ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/23/2011 for the course BIOL 328 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at S.F. State.

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lab1_exercise[1] - Lab 1 Axial Skeleton Vertebral column...

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