Unformatted text preview: Schema is
an abstract structure of information that underlies a concept and provides a framework into which we place our experiences (Anderson, 1984) a cognitive structure that consists of facts, ideas, and associations organized into a meaningful system of relationships (Cross, 1999) a working structure, changing and growing throughout life (Cross, 1999) Most of us don’t realize how much we have already stored in our memories, or how we draw upon it when we deal with new situations or challenges. As we learn more, we develop our schema. Schema in Reading In reading, just as in life, we need to use our schema. It is easier to understand a passage if we can draw on what we already know about the subject or topic of the passage. Best of all, as we read reflectively, we increase our schema. There are several strategies we can use to activate schema: Pre‐viewing Reading the title, scanning the text, and examining aspects of the text in order to get the central message of the piece and to activate your schema Creating an Action Plan Assessing your needs before you start to read, by clarifying the task, setting a purpose, and formulating a reading strategy Comprehension Monitoring Attending to what you are doing as you read, noticing when you have run into a problem, selecting fix‐up strategies, and reflecting on your solution Visualizing Creating mental images based on the words you are reading Predicting Using your schema and cues from the text to form expectations about what will come next Coding/Annotating Putting the text into your own words, taking notes on a reading Making Connections Make connections between the text and your own experiences and knowledge, other texts (written, visual, or aural), and the world Concentration Causes of Poor Concentration Possible Solutions External Distractions Internal Distractions Lack of Curiosity Mental Processes to Improve Reading Self Knowledge Recognizing our strengths and weaknesses as a reader, allows us to capitalize on our strengths and compensate for our weaknesses Forming a healthy self‐concept allows us to see that we can make changes to our reading abilities Learned Helplessness We exhibit learned helplessness when we believe that we are incapable of reading or writing well. This is a learned belief and too often a self‐fulfilling prophesy because it can prevent us from learning strategies and skills that can help us improve our reading and writing. Task Knowledge Knowledge about the text, assignment, purpose, and appropriate reading strategies Metacognition (Comprehension Monitoring) Recognizing comprehension break‐downs Selecting strategies to improve comprehension Reflecting on strategy use Making Inferences To derive an idea that is not directly (explicitly) stated; to bring in knowledge to aid in understanding a text Sometimes we can’t point to an answer on the page but instead must make judgments based on the information that is presented in the text. In other words, you have to read between the lines for the implied meaning. Our schema allows us to infer the appropriate connections. ...
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- Spring '11