chem215-coord-chem_fall2011-preclass

chem215-coord-chem_fall2011-preclass - Coordination...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Coordination Chemistry Properties of the transition metals (8.3, 8.5 , 23.1) Electron Configuration Oxidation State Paramagnetic or Diamagnetic? Coordination compounds Structure, Geometry (23.4) Electron-pair donation: Lewis acid/base (18.9) Ligands (23.4) Isomers (ex: Cisplatin, anti-cancer drug) Valence Bond Theory (23.5) (hybrid orbitals) Crystal Field Theory (CFT) : Color and Magnetism explained (23.5)
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The Transition Elements Fig. 23.1
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Electron configuration of TM gaseous atoms Fig. 8.6: Order for filling energy sublevels Table
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Electron configuration of TM Ions and Complexes/Compounds When a transition metal is oxidized (becomes a cation) or when it bonds to another atom, it appears that the relative energy of the n s and n-1 d orbitals inverts: 3d becomes lower than 4s , 4d becomes lower than 5s , etc. Thus, for TM ions, complexes, and compounds, assume that in the ground state the first ten valence electrons will be in d orbitals.
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How do we know that the valence electrons are in the d orbitals? Experimental data, especially magnetic behavior. 1. Measure mass of sample in the presence and absence of a magnetic field. 2. Insignificant change: sample is diamagnetic (no unpaired electrons) 3. Significant increase in mass: sample is paramagnetic (one or more unpaired electrons) Fig 8.27
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Fig. 23.5 A given transition metal often has multiple oxidation states; complexes of the different oxidation states usually have different colors; each transitional metal Mn(II) in Mn2+(aq); Mn(VI) in MnO42-(aq); Mn(VII) in MnO4-(aq) V(V) in VO43-(aq); Cr(VI) in Cr2O72-(aq); Mn(VII) in MnO4-(aq)
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Fig. 23.6 Electrons in a partially filled d sublevel can absorb visible wavelengths and move to slightly higher energy d orbitals. As a result, many transition metal compounds have Staggered from left to right, the compounds are scandium oxide ( white ), titanium(IV) oxide ( white ), vanadyl sulfate dihydrate ( light blue ), sodium chromate ( yellow ), manganese(II) chloride tetrahydrate ( light pink ), potassium ferricyanide ( red-orange ), cobalt(II) chloride hexahydrate ( violet ), nickel(II) nitrate hexahydrate ( green ), copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate ( blue ), and zinc sulfate heptahydrate ( white ).
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Many transition metal compounds have striking colors. Scandium Oxide,  Sc2O3 Sc3+ d  0 Titanium(IV) Oxide,  TiO2 Ti4+ d  0 Vanadyl  Sulfate Dihydrate,   VOSO4 • 2H2O V4+ d  1 Sodium Chromate,   Na2CrO4 Cr6+ d  0 Manganese(II) Chloride  Tetrahydrate,   MnCl2 • 4H2O Mn2+ d  5
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Many transition metal compounds have striking colors. Potassium Ferricyanide,   K3Fe(CN)6 Fe3+ d  5 Cobalt(II) Chloride  Hexahydrate,   CoCl2 6H2O Co2+ d  7 Nickel(II) Chloride  Hexahydrate,   NiCl2 6H2O Ni2+ d  8 Copper(II) Sulfate  Cu2+ d  9
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Coordination Compounds: Basic Terms The most distinctive aspect of transition metal chemistry is the formation of coordination compounds
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This note was uploaded on 09/23/2011 for the course CHEM 215 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at S.F. State.

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chem215-coord-chem_fall2011-preclass - Coordination...

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