History 142 Study guide

History 142 Study guide - Indus Valley Civilization Indus...

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Indus Valley Civilization o Indus Valley Civilization (3000 BC-1500 BC) o Indus Valley is dry compared to North India o The 2 cities trade with one another. (harrapa and Mohanjo-daro) o They are 400 miles apart o Bricks lead to centralization o Walled cities o Ideographic Seals (for trade and services) – no writing o Used irrigation systems o Had sanitation o Cities were created because of the prime real estate next to the Indus River (irrigation system / agriculture) o Cities were protected from heat and mountains o Arid climate and no forests o Flooding of river lead to fertile land o Sophisticated inundation-and-irrigation agricultural and commercial economy capable of supporting a large surplus urban population. Crops included: field peas, dates, mustard seeds, and sesamum. o Domesticated a wide variety of animals, including: dag, car, camel, sheep, pig, goat, water buffalo, zebu, elephant, and chicken. o The domestication of fowl enriched the diet. o Cotton spinning ranks among India’s earliest gifts to the world. Main export! Harappa (in North) o -earliest known civilization o -population of 35,000 people o -discovered in 1921 o -the great wall of Harappa protected the citadel from the waters of the Ravi and also from human invasion. o -centralized authority / infrastructure o -tools made of metal o -specialization (division of labor) lead to a stratified society o -civilization diminished when resources became low and the city became poor o Big Urban city Agriculture surplus population increase o Sanitation, Water and Irrigation, Central Authority, Common language, complex engineering o Religion importance of priests (religious specialists) Mohenjo-Daro (in South) o -fairly advanced agriculture o -used metal to clear land (copper) o -stored surplus o -their only writing was discovered on seals (no real books or texts were discovered) (Egypt had texts during this time) o -the city became Demise (maybe?) o -Arians, natural disaster, o -caste? o -Indus river shifted or moved paths (mass flooding) Yogic/yoni= vagina shaped, Phallic=penis
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Muraya Empire (3 rd and 4 th century BC!! ) - 1st imperial dynasty in India -founded by the Chandragupta his grandson was Ashoka -mostly a Buddhist empire -not well integrated compared to the Roman Empire -quite powerful for the time -more symbolic rule -Arthashasta – science of politics, or material things. Did not exist before this empire. Political science. Interest of state was above everything else. Author: Kautilya. How to organize a state. But Mauryan was very fragmented and not as unified as we think and not integrated. -
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History 142 Study guide - Indus Valley Civilization Indus...

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