Chem_215_week06_acid-base_titration_buffers-Summer_2011

Chem_215_week06_acid-base_titration_buffers-Summer_2011 -...

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Unformatted text preview: Acid/Base Titrations and Buffers 4.4: Acid-base reactions 12.5: The uniqueness of water 18.1: Acids and bases in water 18.2: Autoionization of water and the pH scale 18.3: Proton transfer and the Brnsted-Lowry acid-base definition 18.4: Solving problems involving weak-acid equilibria 18.5: Weak bases and their relation to weak acids 19.1: Equilibria of acid-base buffer systems 19.2: Acid-base titration curves 19.4: Equilibria involving complex ions Acid/Base Titration Analysis 1. Examine the titration of a solution of hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide. 2. Examine the titration of a solution of propionic acid with sodium hydroxide. 3. Identify similarities and differences of strong acid - strong base and weak acid - strong base titrations: a. Reaction of added base with acid in solution b. Water self-ionization equilibrium c. Weak acid - conjugate weak base equilibrium d. Initial pH e. Change in pH when first, small quantity of base added f. pH at half-equivalence point [buffer region] g. pH at equivalence point h. pH just before and just after equivalence point i. pH after excess base added Strong Acid Strong Base Titration Curve H 3 O + (aq) + OH- (aq) 2H 2 O (l) Figure 19.7: Curve for a strong acidstrong base titration; 40.00 mL 0.10 M HCl with 0.10 M NaOH. tritrated with 0.100 M NaOH Weak Acid Strong Base Titration Curve methyl red Figure 19.8: Curve for a weak acidstrong base titration; 40.00 mL 0.10 M CH 3 CH 2 COOH with 0.10 M NaOH. CH 3 CH 2 CO 2 H (aq) + OH- (aq) CH 3 CH 2 CO 2- (aq) + H 2 O (l) tritrated with 0.100 M NaOH Strong Acid Strong Base Titration Curve Details H + (aq) + OH- (aq) H 2 O (l) Strong AcidStrong Base Titration: pH Calculation H + (aq) + OH- (aq) H 2 O (l) K = 1/K W = 1.0 x 10 14 This reaction goes essentially to completion; i.e., until the limiting reagent is completely consumed Once the stoichiometric result is determined, the actual (non-zero) concentration of the limiting reagent can be calculated using the water ionization equilibrium and the concentration of the excess reagent. H 2 O (l) H + (aq) + OH- (aq) K w = 1.0 x 10-14 SA/SB Titration: Pre-Equivalence Point pH calc 1 H + (aq) + OH- (aq) H 2 O (l) This reaction goes essentially to completion; i.e., until the limiting reagent is completely consumed 40.0 mL of 0.100 M hydrochloric acid is tritrated with 0.100 M sodium hydroxide. What is the pH after the addition of 39.9 mL of sodium hydroxide?...
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Chem_215_week06_acid-base_titration_buffers-Summer_2011 -...

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