chem215_thermochemistry

chem215_thermochemistry - Thermochemistry 6.1: Forms of...

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Unformatted text preview: Thermochemistry 6.1: Forms of energy and their interconversion 6.2: Enthalpy: Heats of reaction and chemical change 6.3: Calorimetry: Laboratory measurement of heats of reaction 6.4: Stoichiometry of thermochemical equations 6.5: Hess s law of heat summation 6.6: Standard heats of reaction ( H o rxn ) 20.1: The second law of thermodynamics: Predicting spontaneous change 20.2: Calculating the change iin entropy of a reaction 20.3: Entropy, free energy, and work 20.4: Free energy, equilibrium, and reaction direction A system can lose energy Fig. 6.2 Heat energy can be transferred to a system Fig. 6.3B Initial state Final state or heat energy can be transferred from a system Fig. 6.3A Initial state Final state Work can be done by a system on the surroundings Fig. 6.4 or work can be done on a system by the surroundings E >0 Work on the system done by the surroundings (w > 0) Forms of energy and their interconversion Fig. 6.6 Forms of energy and their interconversion Fig. 6.6 - modified Forms of energy and their interconversion Fig. 6.7 (If P 0, w = -(P V + V P).) Forms of energy and their interconversion Fig. 6.8 Calculating H o rxn from Bond Dissociation Energies Page 231 H o BDE ( bonds broken ) - BDE ( bonds formed ) H o m BDE ( reactants ) - n BDE ( products ) { 1 mol * BDE [FF] + 1 mol * BDE [HH] - 2 mol * BDE [1 HF] } Calculating H o rxn from bond dissociation energy Modification of Fig. 6.13 H o rxn m BDE ( reactants ) - n BDE ( products ) H o m BDE ( reactants ) - n BDE ( products ) Initial state Final state ATOMS BDE-BDE break bonds make bonds Calculating H o rxn from Bond Dissociation Energies Page 232 H o BDE ( bonds broken ) BDE ( bonds formed ) H o m BDE ( reactants ) - n BDE ( products ) Draw Lewis dot structures of reactants and products to determine the number and type of bonds broken and formed. (Review CHEM 115 Heats of Combustion lab!) Calculating H o rxn from calorimetry Fig. 6.10 H o rxn from q rxn q rxn = - (q solution + q cal ) assume q cal 0 q soln = c soln * mass * T c is the gram heat capacity (aka specific heat capacity ) in units, J g-1 K-1 i.e, the heat energy required to change the temperature of one gram of a substance by 1 K. Calculating H o rxn from H o formation Fig. 6.13 H o rxn = n H o f ( products ) - m H o f ( reactants ) H o m BDE ( reactants ) - n BDE ( products ) Initial state Final state Calculating H o rxn from H o formation What is H o for the following reaction: 6 CO 2 ( g ) + 6 H 2 O( l ) C 6 H 12 O 6 ( s ) + 6 O 2 ( g ) H o = n H f o ( products ) - m H f o ( reactants ) H o formation...
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This note was uploaded on 09/23/2011 for the course CHEM 215 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at S.F. State.

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chem215_thermochemistry - Thermochemistry 6.1: Forms of...

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