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Origin_of_Plants[1] - Origin of Land Plants March 14...

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Unformatted text preview: Origin of Land Plants March 14 Announcements Review Sheet for Exam 2 will be posted on iLearn by tomorrow evening REVIEW SESSION ON MONDAY, MARCH 21 12:30 ­2:30PM AND 3:30 ­5:30PM For the few that cannot make it on either Ame, talk to me aCer class ReflecJon: Most interesJng? Diversity and importance of Algae ReflecJon: Most interesJng? hDp://www.eplantscience.com/index_files/plant_classificaAon.php TransiJon of life from aquaJc to terrestrial habitats From BIOL 240’s iLearn site (Week 9 “ Terms ­2”) ReflecJon QuesJons EvoluJon of Land Plants ­ Phylogeny ReflecJon: Input on Lecture and PracJcal Exam Reviews •  Majority felt they benefited from both reviews •  Jeopardy! was parAcularly popular –  Not all labs cover the same exact material –  Will talk to the Lab Coordinator and get a lab book. All figures and quesAons will come from there. •  Jeopardy! on April 4th Today’s AcJvity •  IdenAfy traits/adaptaAons that are shared between green algae and land plants •  IdenAfy traits/adaptaAons that are unique to a parAcular group of plants •  Discuss the traits/adaptaAons that allowed land plants to evolve •  Recognize synapomorphies •  Use that knowledge to infer phylogeneAc relaAonships Video •  hDp://www.5min.com/Video/Plants ­ AdaptaAons ­1354343 Highlights of Plant EvoluJon Redraw the phylogeneJc tree assuming that bryophytes are a monophyleJc group in which liverworts diverged first. Traits/AdaptaJons List at least two traits that are: A.  Shared by Charophyceans and Plants B.  Shared by all Land Plants C.  Unique to Bryophytes D.  Unique to Lycophytes E.  Shared by Pterophytes and Gymnosperms Explain why they are important. PhylogeneJc RelaJonships Draw a phylogeneAc tree that represents our current understanding of evoluAonary relaAonships between a moss, a lycophyte, a fern, and a gymnosperm. Use a charophyte alga as an outgroup. Label each branch point (node) of the phylogeny with 2 derived characters unique to the clade descended from the common ancestor represented by the branch point. Traits shared by Charophyceans and plants •  RoseDe ­shaped cellulose ­synthesizing complexes •  Peroxisome enzymes ­ Glycolate Oxidase •  Structure of flagellated sperm •  FormaAon of phragmoplast •  Open spindle Traits that all land plants exhibit Sporic Meiosis Embryo Apical Meristems MulAcellular Gametangia (archegonia and antheridia) •  CuAcle •  •  •  •  Bryophytes •  •  •  •  •  Non ­vascular: lacking xylem and phloem Gametophyte generaAon dominant All homosporous: one type of sporangium Sporophyte retained on gametophyte Require water for sexual reproducAon: moAle sperm Lycophytes •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Seedless Microphyll Sporophyte dominant Vascular system: xylem and phloem All stem Terminal Sporangia FuncAoning stomata Pterophytes and Gymnosperms •  Megaphyll •  Overtopping Growth •  IniAaAon of new root branches at various points along the length of an exisAng root Ap 1 ­ RoseDe cellulose ­synthesizing complexes, glycolate oxidase; flagellated sperm structure, and phragmoplast. 2 ­ Apical meristems, alternaAon of generaAons, walled spores produced in sporangia, and mulAcellular gametangia. 3 ­ Life cycle with dominant sporophytes, complex vascular systems, and well developed roots and leaves. 4 ­ Megaphylls and overtopping growth. ...
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