SCI_240_Feb_21[1] -  ­ Cladis'cs and Specia'on ...

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Unformatted text preview:  ­ Cladis'cs and Specia'on  ­ Origin of Life Feb 21st Announcements •  Thanks for your input! •  E ­mail addresses and iLearn access •  Exam review date and @mes: Friday, February 25th at 9AM ­11AM and 3:30PM ­6PM in this classroom *Come prepared with ques2ons!* •  Delete Study Guide #s 19 ­4, 20 ­22; Life form matching (a. and 4); mul@ple choice 4. Edit fill ­in ­the ­blank #2 (5 prezygo@c barriers). Will edit. •  Extended office hours today: 1:30PM ­ 3:00PM •  Feel free to e ­mail ques@ons during the week •  Next week’s class: aZend!! Reflec'ons Today Top 4 Ques'ons in Reflec'ons •  “morphies”: Pleiso ­, Anapo ­, Synapo ­, Symplesio ­, •  Species Defini@ons •  Sympatric vs. Allopatric Specia@on •  Autopolyploidy and Allopolyploidy Ac'vity Origin of Life •  Apomorphy= derived character •  Plesiomorphy= ancestral character •  Homology is similarity of traits in two or more species due to descent from a common ancestor. •  Synapomorphy (a shared derived character) is homology based on recent shared ancestry •  Symplesiomorphy (a shared primi@ve character) is homology based on more distant ancestry •  pg.543 explains the above terms well •  Autapomorphy is a derived trait that is unique to a given terminal group. •  Homoplasy is similarity NOT due to homology but resul@ng from convergent evolu@on. Mono ­,Para ­, Polyphyle'c Monophyle'c describes a taxon which includes an ancestral species and all of its descendent species. And is defined by a suite of shared ­derived characters (synapomorphies). Monophyle@c groups are some@mes called clades. Ideally, all taxa should be monophyle@c. Paraphyle'c describes a taxon which includes an ancestral species and some but not all of its descendents. Opera@onally, a paraphyle@c group is defined by a suite of ancestral traits (plesiomorphies) which have been modified or lost in the excluded species. Polyphyle'c describes a taxon which includes species whose common ancestor is not included within the group. Opera@onally, a polyphyle@c group is defined by convergent traits (homoplasies). Species Defini'ons •  The Morphological Species concept emphasizes overall similarity –  Characterized by dis@nct combina@ons of morphological, anatomical and physiological features •  The Biological Species concept emphasizes reproduc@ve isola@on –  Characterized by a popula@on whose members have the poten@al to interbreed in nature to produce viable, fer@le offspring •  The Evolu'onary Species concept emphasizes gene@c relatedness –  Those individuals that share a recent common ancestor belong to the same species Sympatric vs. Allopatric Specia'on •  “sym ­” with, together •  “allo ­”= other •  “patric”= na@ve land •  allopatric specia'on ­ new species form when geographically isolated popula@ons evolve reproduc@ve barriers as a byproduct of gene@c dric and natural selec@on to its new environment •  sympatric specia'on ­ specia@on occurs in geographically overlapping popula@ons due various pre ­ and post ­zygo@c barriers Pre ­ and Post ­ Zygo'c Barriers Autopolyploidy and Allopolyploidy Read PAGES 495 ­496 Today’s ac'vity Crea'ng a concept map also known as who was influenced by the works of developed the principle of who wrote about Uniformitarianism Population Limits which made Darwin infer that which made Darwin see that there was a and witnessed firsthand when an Earthquake struck the Chilean coast these are examples of which are characteristics that enhance survival and reproduction in specific environments !"#$%&"'()*+,'-.*/*012*)3&)42*+56*)789&&%85&:*/;<*3=2*32&$%49%+/'' Steps to crea'ng your concept map 1.  2.  3.  4.  The main idea will be given Important terms will be given Write each term on a separate post ­it Organize the terms (on the white board) into a map that indicates how the terms are associated 5.  Draw arrows between the terms and add ac@on phrases or preposi@ons to the arrows that indicate how the terms are related. Use the following words to construct a concept map whose topic is the ORIGIN OF LIFE Reducing Environment Inorganic precursors Organic compounds Self ­replica@on Organic polymers Abio@c synthesis Protobionts Proteinoid Energy Sources Hydrolysis Internal Environment UV Radia@on/ Lightning Hereditary System Membrane Forma@on First Prokaryotes Ribozymes RNA World H2/CO2/CH4/NH3/H2O Osmo@c and Voltage Poten@al Liposomes Amino Acids Chemoheterotroph Origin of Eukaryotes Cell membrane Size Prokaryotes Mitochondria Chloroplasts Organelles Eukaryotes Replica@on rRNA sequences Bacterial enzymes Binary Fision Circular DNA Histones •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Autogenesis Plasma Membrane Specialized Structures Symbiosis Endosymbiosis Endoplama@c Re@culum In ­foldings Nucleous Autotroph Heterotroph Ribosomes Inner membrane transport system Reflec'on #3 Name, sec'on and date Out of all the material you have learned so far in BIOL 240 this semester, what concept(s) remain unclear? Remember, you’ll be graded on your effort to express yourself! ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/23/2011 for the course SCI 240 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at S.F. State.

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