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theory-practice_housing_sector_1950-99_Pugh[1]

theory-practice_housing_sector_1950-99_Pugh[1] - Housing...

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Housing Studies, Vol. 16, No. 4, 399–423, 2001 The Theory and Practice of Housing Sector Development for Developing Countries, 1950–99 CEDRIC PUGH School of Urban and Regional Studies, Shef eld Hallam University, Shef eld, UK [Paper rst received March 1999; in nal form November 1999] A BSTRACT In terms of welfare, development, and overall distributional impact, the study of whole sector housing development is more signi cant than attention to parts of a housing system. Housing policy development is increasingly taking the more compre- hensive approach. The rst phases of international housing policy, 1972–83, represented in sites and services (and related in situ slum upgrading) projects, could never become completely effective. These approaches had only fragmentary relationships to general land policies, to the development of housing nance systems, and to the broader economic, social and institutional conditions for enhancing the qualities and supplies of housing. In due time the theoretical and practical limitations became apparent and various international aid agencies, including the World Bank, adopted broader, more sophisticated thinking in housing, leading to a quest for whole sector housing develop- ment. But in the late 1990s, within managerial reforms in the World Bank, the specialist housing section was disbanded and the staff dispersed to other sections. This paper provides an historical explanation for the change, along with critical commentaries on the potential dilemmas with the modern, more comprehensive approaches. It is argued that policy and research agendas should be more evidently based upon understanding of the developmental dialectic between the economic, the social and the political. The developmental welfare of such a dialectic has authority and legitimacy from several Nobel prize winners in the 1990s. This paper re ects upon the relevance of their theoretical contributions. K EY W ORDS : housing, developing countries, World Bank, self-help housing Introduction Housing sector development in the developing countries has taken a different course and been subject to far greater internationalisation than was the case for the developed countries at their earlier, similar stages of development. Various situational factors account for the different course taken. First, the underlying demographic and developmental factors have been more signi cant. Demo- graphic transitions have produced higher rates and volumes of demographic growth, attributable to earlier ages of marriage and improved health compared with the developed countries. Second, economic growth has been characterised with greater emphasis to the service sectors, and the rate of saving and Cedric Pugh died while this article was in the late stages of preparation for publication.
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