Twenty_Q_about_the_ozone_layer[1]

Twenty_Q_about_the_ozone_layer[1] - TWENTY QUESTIONS AND...

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T WENTY Q UESTIONS AND A NSWERS A BOUT THE O ZONE L AYER : 2006 U PDATE Lead Author: D.W. Fahey The update of this component of the Assessment was discussed by the 77 scientists who attended the Panel Review Meeting for the 2006 Ozone Assessment (Les Diablerets, Switzerland, 19-23 June 2006). In addition, subsequent contri- butions, reviews, or comments were provided by the following individuals: S.A. Montzka (special recognition), R.J. Salawitch (special recognition), D.L. Albritton, S.O. Andersen, P.J. Aucamp, M.P. Baldwin, A.F. Bias, G. Bodeker, J.F. Bornman, G.O. Braathen, J.P. Burrows, M.-L. Chanin, C. Clerbaux, M. Dameris, J.S. Daniel, S.B. Diaz, E.G. Dutton, C.A. Ennis, V. Eyring, V.E. Fioletov, N.P. Gillet, N.R.P. Harris, M.K.W. Ko, L. Kuijpers, G.L. Manney, R.L. McKenzie, R. Müller, E.R. Nash, P.A. Newman, T. Peter, A.R. Ravishankara, A. Robock, M.L. Santee, U. Schmidt, G. Seckmeyer, T.G. Shepherd, R.S. Stolarski, W.T. Sturges, J.C. van der Leun, G.J.M. Velders, D.W. Waugh, C.S. Zerefos.
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T WENTY Q UESTIONS AND A NSWERS A BOUT THE O ZONE L AYER : 2006 U PDATE Contents page INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q.1 I. OZONE IN OUR ATMOSPHERE Q1. What is ozone and where is it in the atmosphere? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q.3 Q2. How is ozone formed in the atmosphere? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q.4 Q3. Why do we care about atmospheric ozone? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q.5 Q4. Is total ozone uniform over the globe? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q.6 Q5. How is ozone measured in the atmosphere? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q.7 II. THE OZONE DEPLETION PROCESS Q6. What are the principal steps in stratospheric ozone depletion caused by human activities? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q.9 Q7. What emissions from human activities lead to ozone depletion? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q.11 Q8. What are the reactive halogen gases that destroy stratospheric ozone? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q.14 Q9. What are the chlorine and bromine reactions that destroy stratospheric ozone? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q.17 Q10. Why has an “ozone hole” appeared over Antarctica when ozone-depleting gases are present throughout the stratosphere? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q.19 III. STRATOSPHERIC OZONE DEPLETION Q11. How severe is the depletion of the Antarctic ozone layer? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q.22 Q12. Is there depletion of the Arctic ozone layer? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q.26 Q13. How large is the depletion of the global ozone layer? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q.28 Q14. Do changes in the Sun and volcanic eruptions affect the ozone layer? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q.30 IV. CONTROLLING OZONE-DEPLETING GASES Q15. Are there regulations on the production of ozone-depleting gases? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q.32 Q16. Has the Montreal Protocol been successful in reducing ozone-depleting gases in the atmosphere? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q.34 V. IMPLICATIONS OF OZONE DEPLETION Q17. Does depletion of the ozone layer increase ground-level ultraviolet radiation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q.37 Q18. Is depletion of the ozone layer the principal cause of climate change? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q.40 VI. STRATOSPHERIC OZONE IN THE FUTURE Q19. How will recovery of the ozone layer be identified? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q.43 Q20. When is the ozone layer expected to recover? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q.45 ADDITIONAL TOPICS • Global Ozone Dobson Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q.8 Understanding Stratospheric Ozone Depletion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q.10 Heavier-Than-Air CFCs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q.13 • Replacing the Loss of Ozone in the Stratosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q.16 • The Discovery of the Antarctic Ozone Hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q.21 • The Anomalous 2002 Antarctic Ozone Hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Q.25
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TWENTY QUESTIONS: 2006 UPDATE Q.1 Ozone is a very small part of our atmosphere, but its presence is nevertheless vital to human well-being.
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This note was uploaded on 09/23/2011 for the course CHEM 380 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at S.F. State.

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Twenty_Q_about_the_ozone_layer[1] - TWENTY QUESTIONS AND...

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