Week 9 Lecture 1 - Week 9 Lecture 1 ROUSSEAU The Origin of...

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Week 9 Lecture 1 ROUSSEAU The Origin of Inequality Second Discourse o The first man who, having enclosed a piece of ground, be though himself of saying “this is mine” and found people simple enough to believe him, was the real founder of civil soviety o “Humanity would have been spared infinite crimes, wars, homicides, murders, if only someone had ripped up the fences or filled in the ditches and said, “Do not listen to this pretender! You are eternally lost if you do not remember that the fruits of the earth are everyone’s property and that the land is no-ones property!” o Violence and justice come within civil society, wasn’t there Property o But that point things had changed so drastically that there was no turning back, for this idea of “property” which develops out of prior ideas, did not form spontaneously in the human mind. Men had to progress, acquiring knowledge and arts, transmitting and increasing these from generation to generation, before they reached the last stage in the natural human state. Self-Improvement o Human response to the challenges of nature: knowledge and technical invention o The new intelligence which resulted from this development increased his superiority over other animals, making him sensible of it o He would now endeavor, therefore, to ensare them, would play them a thousand tricks, and though manyu of them might surpass him in swiftness or instrength… From leisure to inequality o They accustomed themselves to assemble… with nothing else to do o Each on began to consider the rest, …. And at the same time towards vice. o From these first distinction arouse on the one side vanity and contempt and on the other shame and envy From Contentment to Inequality o So long as men remained content with their rustic huts, so long as they were satisfied….with sharp edged stones fishing boats or clumsy musical instruments; o In a word, so long as they undertook only what a single person could
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