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reading summaries - Moore CH 1 England and the...

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Moore CH. 1: England and the Contributions of Violence to Gradualism Transition from Preindustrial to the Modern World Classes in the Countryside played a particularly important role in the transition in to the era of industrialism Connection between violence and peaceful reform in modern democracy and in the transition from agricultural societies to those based on modern industrial technology. Modern and secular society pushing it way to the surface as commerce became increasingly important in the English countryside o Wool Trade increasing commerce across the spectrum from the countryside to politics o King Henry VIII said to have wiped out a pillar of old aristocracy, the church, by taking the monasteries out of the countryside o Command of money became more important than command of men Making important change in the view of land: Previously medieval conception of political functions and obligations Now an income-yielding investment Limited success of English leaders led to the eventual success of an installment of a parliamentary democracy Commercial life in England developed against the Crown land became more and more as something that could be bought and sold o modern capitalist private property o enclosures Yeomen class created—above peasants and into the lower end of the upper class. o Group of ambitious, aggressive, small capitalists o Chief force behind peasant enclosures o Pursuing a profit Peasants were forced to leave the land as landowners and sheepherders could manage land that once fed humans So these men of commerce of the countryside were the ones who pushed England into a modern, secular society o These men pushed forward individually o Whereas in France, they were stuck under the royal patriarchy Large groups of peasants with nothing to do were becoming a menace and starting riots English crown didn’t have enough strong will to enforce its administration in the English countryside o Royal policy tended to weld commercially minded elements in town and countryside, united by many other bonds as well, into a coherent opposition to the crown.
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The Puritan revolution involved economic, religious, and constitutional issues o Not a clear cut upper-class vs. lower-class revolution o Its revolutionary consequences were deep and lasting in the area of law and social relationships o Through breaking the power of the king, the civil war prep’d England for a rule by “committee of landlords” which was essentially early parliament in the 18 th century o A great victory for the alliance between parliamentary democracy and capitalism o Parliament became the instrument of landed capitalists o This transisiton allowed for England to modernize peacefully.
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