Ch2 - 9/6/2011 PSYC2313:001:PsychologyandHumanProblems...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–6. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
9/6/2011 1 PSYC 2313:001: Psychology and Human Problems Theories of Personality
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
9/6/2011 2 ± Personality: an individual’s unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits ± Personality Trait: a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations ± Robert McCrae and Paul Costa (1987, 1997, 1999) state that there are five “higher order” traits that are known as the “Big Five” (see Figure 2.1) ± Extraversion (or positive emotionality) ± Neuroticism (or negative emotionality) ± Openness to experience ± Agreeableness ± Conscientiousness ± However, this is but one of many perspectives on human personality.
Background image of page 2
9/6/2011 3 Theories of Personality ± “father” of psychoanalysis ± Late 19th/early 20th century;Vienna, Austria ± Neurologist by training ± Redefined sexual desire as driving motivation in life (libido) ± Focus on unconscious, internal conflicts ± Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of personality is somewhat controversial and is based on three main assumptions ± Personality is governed by unconscious forces that we cannot control. ± Childhood experiences play a significant role in determining adult personality. ± Personality is shaped by the manner in which children cope with sexual urges.
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
9/6/2011 4 ± Id (Latin: it): Governed by inborn instinctual drives, especially those related to sex, aggression ± Obeys the pleasure principle ± Superego: Motivates people to act in an ideal fashion, according to moral customs ± Obeys the idealistic principle ± Ego (Latin: I): Induces people to act with reason and deliberation, conform to outside world ± Obeys the reality principle ± The id, ego and superego are distributed across three layers of awareness ± The conscious –“material we are fully aware of at a particular time”. ± The preconscious–“material just below the surface of awareness”. ± The unconscious–“material well below the surface of conscious awareness, but that greatly influences behavior” (see Figure 2.2). ± Figure 2.2 Freud’s model of personality structure. Freud theorized that we have three levels of awareness: the conscious, the preconscious, and the unconscious. To dramatize the size of the unconscious, it has often been compared to the portion of an iceberg that lies beneath the water’s surface. Freud also divided personality structure into three components—id,ego, and superego—that operate according to different principles and exhibit different modes of thinking. In Freud’s model, the id is entirely unconscious, but the ego and superego operate at al three levels of awareness.
Background image of page 4
9/6/2011 5 ± Freud believed that behavior is the result of ongoing internal conflict among the id, ego, and superego. ± Conflicts stemming from sexual and aggressive urges are especially significant.
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 6
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 21

Ch2 - 9/6/2011 PSYC2313:001:PsychologyandHumanProblems...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 6. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online