Ch4 - 9/22/2011 PSYC2313:001:PsychologyandHumanProblems

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9/22/2011 1 PSYC 2313:001: Psychology and Human Problems ± Coping refers to “efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the demands created by stress”. ± General points for consideration: ± People cope with stress in many ways. ± It is most adaptive to use a variety of coping strategies. ± Coping strategies vary in their adaptive value.
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9/22/2011 2 ± Giving up ± People may develop learned helplessness – “passive behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events”. ± Sometimes, could then be transferred to situations in which the person is not really helpless. ± This then creates a passive reaction to stressful events, rather than active problem solving. ± Giving up, continued ± Cognitive interpretation of aversive events may determine whether we feel helpless or not not. ± People with a pessimistic explanatory style view aversive events as “out of their control”, feel helpless, and give up. ± This coping strategy is called behavioral disengagement and is associated with increased distress. ± Acting aggressively ± Frustration caused by stressful events may elicit aggression, “behavior intended to hurt someone, either physically or verbally” either physically or verbally . ± People often act out toward others who had nothing to do with their frustration. ± Freud believed aggressive acts could release pent up emotional tension and called the process catharsis. ± Research finds that acting aggressively produces more, not less, anger and aggression.
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9/22/2011 3 ± Striking out at others, continued ± Freud believed aggressive acts could release pent up emotional tension and called the process catharsis. ± However, research finds that acting aggressively produces more, not less, anger and aggression. ± Indulging yourself ± When stressed by events that are going poorly, some people seek out alternative sources of satisfaction: Excessive eating, drinking, and smoking; gambling & drug use; and Internet addiction–“spending an inordinate amount of time on the Internet and inability to control online use” (see Figure 4.4). ± Blaming yourself ± People often become highly critical of themselves when stressed. ± Albert Ellis called this catastrophic thinking, which involves Attributing failures to personal shortcomings; Focusing on negative feedback; and Being overly pessimistic about the future.
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This note was uploaded on 09/23/2011 for the course PSYC 2313 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at Oklahoma State.

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Ch4 - 9/22/2011 PSYC2313:001:PsychologyandHumanProblems

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