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Unformatted text preview: 1 © Sven Thommesen 2011 Math: SET THEORY AND VENN DIAGRAMS (Needed in Ch 4) [Edited 09/23/08] [Note: Since MS Word is not good at doing diagrams, you’ll have to get those off the blackboard or out of the textbook.] [Read these notes along with the Wikipedia article on “Set”.] Definition: a SET is a collection of items of some sort. As an example, let it be the set of possible outcomes of a statistical experiment, such as a roll of a die: S = {1,2,3,4,5,6} [Diagram 1] We can count the number of members in the set, which gives us the norm of the set, or its cardinality , written S = 6. A set that contains no elements is called the empty set, written or {}. Obviously, Ø = 0. Now let us consider the smaller set A = {3,4} which contains some of the elements in S. We have A = 2. We say that A is a SUBSET of S: A S [Diagram 2] This symbol, sort of like the mathematical lessthanorequal sign, signifies that A may contain SOME of the elements of S, and possibly all the elements...
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