extensions to mendel - Extensions to Mendel Crossing-Over...

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Extensions to Mendel Crossing-Over and Sex Linkage
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Learning Objectives Identify sex chromosomes in a karyotype, and use this information to determine gender. Differentiate between chromosomes, sister chromatids, and homologues, and between alleles of the same gene and different genes. Use the understanding of chromosomes as the location of genes (such as SRY) and the events of linkage and crossing over to explain how an XX individual could develop as a male. Predict the outcomes of genetic crosses between parents with two linked genes versus two unlinked genes. For a male or female expressing an X-linked mutation, explain whether the gene was inherited from the mother, father, both, or neither. Use descriptions of offspring and your knowledge of how genes on autosomes are inherited versus genes on sex chromosomes to identify a mutation as either dominant or recessive, sex-linked or autosomal. Predict the genotype and phenotypes of offspring that result from crosses with X-linked genes. 2
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Female Athlete: Santhi Soundarajan Santhi was born in 1981 in Kathakkurichi, India. She holds the Indian national record for the women’s 3000 meters steeplechase, clocking 10:44.65 seconds. At a national meet in Bangalore in July 2005 she won the 800m, 1500m, and 3000m. In 800m, she won the silver medal in South Korea in 2005 and the silver medal at the Asian Games in Doha, Qatar, in 2006. 3
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“Indian athlete Santhi Soundararajan fails gender test” Sports writer KP Mohan said that a team of doctors, including a gynecologist, endocrinologist and psychologist examined the women athletes and put them through physical and clinical examinations. Santhi Soundararajan's test was done soon after she came second in the women's 800m race on 9 December, 2006. She was disqualified soon afterwards. 4
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Why did Santhi fail the gender test? There are multiple ways that sex determination can be more complicated than generally assumed. Sex determination disorders include: Primary sex reversal Androgen insensitivity syndrome Our job is to understand Santhi’s case by learning more about sex determination and how it can be explained by genetic mechanisms Mendel knew nothing about. 5
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I. How is sex determined in humans? I. How is sex determined in humans? 1. 1. Anatomy: Anatomy: Primary and secondary Primary and secondary sexual characteristics - genitalia, body sexual characteristics - genitalia, body hair, pelvis, etc.
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extensions to mendel - Extensions to Mendel Crossing-Over...

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