Ophthalmic and Otic Disorders L.O.’s Identify the types of ophthalmic disorders that warrant pharmacological treatment • Dry eye Disease • Symptoms: • White or red eye • Sandy/gritty feeling, • Sensation of object in eye • Excessive tearing • Causes • Lid or corneal defects • Sjogrens syndrome, Bell’s Palsy, or thyroid disorders • Aging • Loss of tissue turgor • Medications • Antihistamines, antidepressants, decongestants, diuretics, beta blockers • Allergens • Dust • Heating/Ac resulting in reduction of humidity • Allergic Conjunctivitis • Symptoms red eye, watery d/c, itchy eyes • Causes: • Pollen • Animal dander • Topical eye preparations • Dust • Other environmental factors • Corneal Edema • Symptoms
• Swelling in the corneal, halos, starbursts around light • **Must be diagnosed by Dr. First before recommending OTC tx • Causes • Over-wearing contacts • Surgical damage • Corneal dystrophies • Loose Foreign object in eye • Symptoms excessive tearing, feeling of particle in eye • Exclusions • If object causes significant irritation or abrasion on eye surface • Foreign object is a piece of metal or wood • Minor eye irritation • Symptoms redness of the eye, pain, feeling of “sand in eye” • Causes: • Contact lens • Exposure to wind • Sun • Smog • Chemical fumes • Chlorine • “Snow blindness” • Contact dermatitis skin irritation and inflammation of the eyelids • Symptoms swelling, scaling, redness of eyelid, profuse itching • Causes • Allergens • Irritants • Cosmetics • Soaps
• Eye medications • Foreign Objects • Chemical burns Exclusions to Self-Care (Ophthalmic) • Blunt trauma • Foreign particles trapped/embedded in eye • Metal and/or wood particles in eye • Ocular abrasions • Infections of eyelid/eye surface • Eye exposure to chemicals • Thermal injury • Viral conjunctivitis • Bacterial or chlamydial conjunctivitis Recommend appropriate pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options when given a case Dry Eye Treatments o Non-pharmacological Environmental modifications Wearing glasses/eye protection Eliminating offending agents Warm compresses Good eyelid hygiene o Pharmacological Ocular lubricants solutions, ointments, or gels MOA: lubricates the eye surface, stabilizes the tear film, protects corneal and conjunctive cells, and reduces tear evaporation Excipients buffering agents Solutions ”artificial tears” o Dosing: usually 1-2 drops in affected eye once to twice daily PRN may increase up to 3-4x/day o Active ingredients Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose Glycerin
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- Spring '17
- Ophthalmology, Earwax, eye irritation, Ointments