Vitamins and Minerals FDA.gov; CDC.gov; Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine 19e; Krinsky’s Handbook of Non-Prescription Drugs 17e.Vitamins and minerals are necessary for life to continue and for physiological processes to proceed, and as humans, we get most of what we need through food. However, sometimes there are deficiency that cause ill health. Diagnosable changes in vitamin levels in the body may be due to:1. malnutrition– bad diet (need carbs, protein, little bit of fat, grains) 2. malabsorption– bad absorptions. Or, and life style alcoholism, smocking, exercise 3. disease processes– liver disease we can’t abs (genetically can’t abs food like in liver disease)4. secondary to lifestyle– alcoholism, exercise ((loss of electrolytes), smoking Some diagnoses are related to specific vitamin deficiencies or toxicities.1. anemia – iron and vit C present the same way in deficiency. a.Iron/vitC deficiencypresents as fatigue and weakness, pallor (pale appearance), chest pain, tachycardia, brittle nails, unusual cravings/Pica, inflamed tongueb.Pernicious anemia B12(Cyanocobalamin)presents as weakness, HA, chest pain, weight loss, gait changes, memory loss, depression, N/V/C, heartburnc.Megaloblastic anima (folic acid B9) presents as fatigue, HA, pallor, sores in mouth 2. scurvy: lack of vit C: presenting as malaise, lethargy, loss of teeth, spots on skin, slow wound healing, death.