MGF 1107 – EXPLORATIONS IN MATHEMATICS
LECTURE 4
Chapter 2 – The Mathematics of Power
In chapter 1 we looked at voting, with the implicit assumption that each
person casts one vote. However in the real world this is often not the
case, especially when the voters are institutions rather than individuals.
Ex.
In the 2008 Presidential election, Barack Obama gained
electoral
votes for winning Florida, but only
for winning Vermont, so
Florida has more power than Vermont when it comes to determining
who becomes President.
Ex.
For a resolution to pass at the United Nations, all five of the
permanent members –
−
must agree, regardless of the wishes of the other countries.
They hence have more power than the others.
These two examples illustrate the concept of weighted voting
, which we
will look at in more detail, studying the different ways to define the
power
of each voter.
Definitions and Notation
Definition:
A weighted voting system
is one where voters are not
necessarily equal in terms of the number of votes that they cast.
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 Spring '08
 EVINSON
 Math, Calculus, Democracy, weighted voting

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