Chapter 14 - Chapter 14 Cognitive Disorders I Cognitive...

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Chapter 14 Cognitive Disorders I. Cognitive Disorders Defined These disorders are presumed to be caused by transient or permanent dysfunctions of the brain, affecting the thinking process, memory and other brain functions. They are considered by DSM-IV as cognitive disorders. In DSM-III R they were discussed under orhanic mental syndromes and organic disorders. II. The Assessment of Brain Damage Neuropsychological tests assess functions like memory and manual dexterity (hand-eye coordination). Neurological tests permit direct monitoring of the brain. They include EEG, the MRI and the CAT scan. 1. Localization of Brain Damage The CAT and PET scans and MRI help determine the location and extent of brain damage. Diaschisis is defined as a lesion in a specific area of the brain which disrupts other intact areas. 2. The Dimensions of Brain Damage The range of damage may vary from mild to moderate to severe. Endogenous brain damage is caused by something within the person such as insufficient blood oxygen, which destroys brain cells. (within/inside) Exogenous brain damage is caused by an external factor such as a blow to the head. Diffuse damage is rather generalized and widespread. Specific brain damage is localized. Acute brain disorder is temporary and reversible. Chronic brain disorder involves permanent and irreversible brain damage. 3. Diagnostic Problems People with no brain damage may be diagnosed having cognitive disorder, for example in the case of depression. Neurological tests cannot differentiate between brain damage and schizophrenic patients. The elderly are vulnerable to being inaccurately diagnosed as brain damaged.
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III. Types of Cognitive Disorders Four major cognitive disorders are listed in DSM-IV: 1. Dementia Symptoms include impairment of memory and decline or cognitive functioning. There is gradual onset and continuing cognitive decline. Alzheimer’s disease accounts for most of dementia in the elderly. It involved deterioration of brain tissues and cells (starts dying of cells). 2.
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Chapter 14 - Chapter 14 Cognitive Disorders I Cognitive...

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