Chapter 17 - Chapter 17 I. Biologically Based Treatment...

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Chapter 17 I. Biologically Based Treatment Techniques Historically, biological treatments started with trephining during the Stone Age and continued by bleeding (used leaches sometimes), uses of laxatives and herbs to this date. Major biologically based techniques follow: 1. Electroconvvulsive Therapy: (ECT) ECT was introduced in 1938 by Cerletti and Bini. It has been most effective with severely psychotic patients. However, recent drug therapy has minimized its administration. (etc still used today, have it in Florida Hospital but only used when drugs are inactive for psychotic or depressed) 2. Psychosurgery In the 1930’s Moniz propsed the treatment by destroying certain connections in the brain. It was then called prefrontal lobotomy which involved cutting the nerve fibers between the frontal loves and hypothalamus, causing a relaxed state in the patient. After the surgery, patients become calm, manageable, less anxious, but lost intellectual an cognitive functioning. (they would drill but now they go through the nose and cut from there) Note: fun fact when use xanax the hypothalamus becomes numb after 15 min giving you relaxed emotional feeling 3. Psychopharmacology: Drugs and medication have been widely used in treatment of patients since the 1960’s. a. Anti-anxiety Drugs (minor Tranquilizers) Before 1950’s, Barbiturates were used to relieve anxiety. They were replaced by anti- anxiety drugs. Meprobamates were the first starters followed by benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium, and Xanax ). Anti-anxiety drugs are addictive and influence psychomotor skills. b. Anti-psychotic Drugs (Major Tranquilizers) Anti-anxiety drugs cannot treat hallucinations or delusions of psychotic patients. In 1950’s, Chloropromozine (thorazine) was developed in France which reduced psychotic symptoms, especially in schizophrenia. Thorazine belonged to a group called phenothiazines which were most effective in helping psychotic patients. Over the years, new and more effective anti-psychotic medications have been marketed with fewer side effects. Hadol is a good example.
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c. Anti-depressant Drugs Monoamine oxidase ( MAO) inhibitors and tricyclics have been effective. MAO prevents the breakdown of nor-epinephrine and serotonin in the synapses. Tricyclics (such as imipramine ) have fewer side effects. Prozac is a major anti-depressant drug which has been miraculous. d. Anti-manic Drugs Lithium (in the form of lithium carbonate) is effective in treating bipolar disorders and produces opposite effects as anti-depressants. It limits the availability of serotonin and nor-epinephrine in the synapses. e. Psychopharmocology The study of the effects of the drugs on behavior and the brain is called psychopharmocology. (note: seems to be the treatment of choice of all mental cases) The use of drugs has greatly changed therapy. Long hospitalization is no longer needed. However, drugs do not cure mental disorders. Their continued and timely use control the symptoms of the illness. II. Psychotherapy
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This note was uploaded on 09/23/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY CLP 3143 taught by Professor Cyrusazimi during the Fall '09 term at University of Central Florida.

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Chapter 17 - Chapter 17 I. Biologically Based Treatment...

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