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Unformatted text preview: Chap 03 THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS • Perspective • Knowledge of basic principles of genetics needed to understand human evolution and adaptation • Genetics: • The study of genes and how traits transmitted from one generation to next Transmission of traits • Cells are the basic or fundamental unit of life Some are single cells • Multicellular organism made of : • Complex eukaryotic cells • Contain nucleus with chromosomes • Structure of a Eukaryotic Cell • Nucleus • Contains two kinds of nucleic acids • with genetic information • 1) DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) • Double stranded molecule) • (de·ox·y·ri·bo·nu·cle·ic) acid • 2) RNA (single stranded) Outside the Nucleus 1) Mitochondrial DNA 2) Ribosomes • Types of Cells • Two types • 1. Somatic cells • Body tissue 1 • 2. Gametes • Sex cells (sperm or ova) • Reproduction • 3. DNA Structure (Discovered in 1953) • Double-stranded molecule • Two chains of nucleotides • Nucleotide **a little piece of DNA. BASIC UNIT OF THE DNA MOLECULE** • Basic units of DNA molecule • Single nucleotide is composed of a sugar and a, phosphate • And one of four DNA bases (A,G,T,C) • 4. DNA Replication • DNA molecules make copies of themselves • Enzymes break bond between strands • Attract complementary nucleotides...
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This note was uploaded on 09/23/2011 for the course ANTHROPOLO ANT 2511 taught by Professor Long during the Spring '11 term at University of Central Florida.
- Spring '11
- Human Evolution