Chapter 3 - Chap 03 THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS Perspective...

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Chap 03 THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS Perspective Knowledge of basic principles of genetics needed to understand human evolution and adaptation Genetics: The study of genes and how traits transmitted from one generation to next Transmission of traits Cells are the basic or fundamental unit of life Some are single cells Multicellular organism made of : Complex eukaryotic cells Contain nucleus with chromosomes Structure of a Eukaryotic Cell Nucleus Contains two kinds of nucleic acids with genetic information 1) DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) Double stranded molecule) (de·ox·y·ri·bo·nu·cle·ic) acid 2) RNA (single stranded) Outside the Nucleus 1) Mitochondrial DNA 2) Ribosomes Types of Cells Two types 1. Somatic cells Body tissue 1
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2. Gametes Sex cells (sperm or ova) Reproduction 3. DNA Structure (Discovered in 1953) Double-stranded molecule Two chains of nucleotides Nucleotide **a little piece of DNA. BASIC UNIT OF THE DNA MOLECULE** Basic units of DNA molecule Single nucleotide is composed of a sugar and a, phosphate And one of four DNA bases (A,G,T,C) 4. DNA Replication DNA molecules make copies of themselves Enzymes break bond between strands Attract complementary nucleotides 5. Protein Synthesis
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