Chapter 4 - Chap 4: HEREDITY AND EVOLUTION 1. Introduction...

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Chap 4: HEREDITY AND EVOLUTION 1. Introduction Chapter concerned with 1) How characteristics are passed on 2) Factors contributing to evolutionary change 2. Genetic Principles Discovered by Mendel Gregor Mendel Experimenting with garden pea traits Involved observation and experimentation Discovered fundamental principles of how traits inherited A. Segregation Mendel’s “First principle of inheritance” Principle of segregation Different expression of same trait controlled by discrete “units” Occurred in pairs and the members of the pair separated and then united with another member. B. Dominance and Recessiveness Mendel recognized that traits not expressed are still present Recessive - trait seemed lost (masked) Dominant - expressed trait Related terms Gene - segment of DNA Locus - location of gene on chromosome Alleles - variation or alternate forms of genes at same locus Homozygous - two copies of same allele Heterozygous - two different alleles at locus Genotype - actual genetic makeup Phenotype - observed characteristic Punnet Square Represents different ways alleles combined
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Chapter 4 - Chap 4: HEREDITY AND EVOLUTION 1. Introduction...

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